Gautam Reddy
tl;dr: We characterize the loss landscape of an in-context classification task and identify the factors that lead to abrupt transitions during learning.
Transformer models exhibit in-context learning: the ability to accurately predict the response to a novel query based on illustrative examples in the input sequence, which contrasts with traditional in-weights learning of query-output relationships. What aspects of the training data distribution and architecture favor in-context vs in-weights learning? Recent work has shown that specific distributional properties inherent in language, such as burstiness, large dictionaries and skewed rank-frequency distributions, control the trade-off or simultaneous appearance of these two forms of learning. We first show that these results are recapitulated in a minimal attention-only network trained on a simplified dataset. In-context learning (ICL) is driven by the abrupt emergence of an induction head, which subsequently competes with in-weights learning. By identifying progress measures that precede in-context learning and targeted experiments, we construct a two-parameter model of an induction head which emulates the full data distributional dependencies displayed by the attention-based network. A phenomenological model of induction head formation traces its abrupt emergence to the sequential learning of three nested logits enabled by an intrinsic curriculum. We propose that the sharp transitions in attention-based networks arise due to a specific chain of multi-layer operations necessary to achieve ICL, which is implemented by nested nonlinearities sequentially learned during training.
Yichen Wu, Long-Kai Huang, Renzhen Wang, Deyu Meng, Ying Wei
tl;dr: We provide a new perspective to Meta-continual learning and propose a Variance Reduction Meta-CL based on the novel understanding.
Regularization-based methods have so far been among the *de facto* choices for continual learning. Recent theoretical studies have revealed that these methods all boil down to relying on the Hessian matrix approximation of model weights. However, these methods suffer from suboptimal trade-offs between knowledge transfer and forgetting due to fixed and unchanging Hessian estimations during training. Another seemingly parallel strand of Meta-Continual Learning (Meta-CL) algorithms enforces alignment between gradients of previous tasks and that of the current task. In this work we revisit Meta-CL and for the first time bridge it with regularization-based methods. Concretely, Meta-CL implicitly approximates Hessian in an online manner, which enjoys the benefits of timely adaptation but meantime suffers from high variance induced by random memory buffer sampling. We are thus highly motivated to combine the best of both worlds, through the proposal of Variance Reduced Meta-CL (VR-MCL) to achieve both timely and accurate Hessian approximation. Through comprehensive experiments across three datasets and various settings, we consistently observe that VR-MCL outperforms other SOTA methods, which further validates the effectiveness of VR-MCL.
Zhenhui Ye, Tianyun Zhong, Yi Ren, Jiaqi Yang, Weichuang Li, Jiawei Huang, Ziyue Jiang, Jinzheng He, Rongjie Huang, Jinglin Liu, Chen Zhang, Xiang Yin, Zejun MA, Zhou Zhao
tl;dr: We present a zero-shot NeRF-based talking face video system that could generate 3D avatar with realistic torso movement and supports both audio/video-driven applications.
One-shot 3D talking portrait generation aims to reconstruct a 3D avatar from an unseen image, and then animate it with a reference video or audio to generate a talking portrait video. The existing methods fail to simultaneously achieve the goals of accurate 3D avatar reconstruction and stable talking face animation. Besides, while the existing works mainly focus on synthesizing the head part, it is also vital to generate natural torso and background segments to obtain a realistic talking portrait video. To address these limitations, we present Real3D-Potrait, a framework that (1) improves the one-shot 3D reconstruction power with a large image-to-plane model that distills 3D prior knowledge from a 3D face generative model; (2) facilitates accurate motion-conditioned animation with an efficient motion adapter; (3) synthesizes realistic video with natural torso movement and switchable background using a head-torso-background super-resolution model; and (4) supports one-shot audio-driven talking face generation with a generalizable audio-to-motion model. Extensive experiments show that Real3D-Portrait generalizes well to unseen identities and generates more realistic talking portrait videos compared to previous methods. Video samples are available at https://real3dportrait.github.io.
Jiaxiang Tang, Jiawei Ren, Hang Zhou, Ziwei Liu, Gang Zeng
Recent advances in 3D content creation mostly leverage optimization-based 3D generation via score distillation sampling (SDS). Though promising results have been exhibited, these methods often suffer from slow per-sample optimization, limiting their practical usage. In this paper, we propose DreamGaussian, a novel 3D content generation framework that achieves both efficiency and quality simultaneously. Our key insight is to design a generative 3D Gaussian Splatting model with companioned mesh extraction and texture refinement in UV space. In contrast to the occupancy pruning used in Neural Radiance Fields, we demonstrate that the progressive densification of 3D Gaussians converges significantly faster for 3D generative tasks. To further enhance the texture quality and facilitate downstream applications, we introduce an efficient algorithm to convert 3D Gaussians into textured meshes and apply a fine-tuning stage to refine the details. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior efficiency and competitive generation quality of our proposed approach. Notably, DreamGaussian produces high-quality textured meshes in just 2 minutes from a single-view image, achieving approximately 10 times acceleration compared to existing methods.
Hao Chen, Jindong Wang, Ankit Shah, Ran Tao, Hongxin Wei, Xing Xie, Masashi Sugiyama, Bhiksha Raj
Pre-training on large-scale datasets and then fine-tuning on downstream tasks have become a standard practice in deep learning. However, pre-training data often contain label noise that may adversely affect the generalization of the model. This paper aims to understand the nature of noise in pre-training datasets and to mitigate its impact on downstream tasks. More specifically, through extensive experiments of supervised pre-training models on synthetic noisy ImageNet-1K and YFCC15M datasets, we demonstrate that while slight noise in pre-training can benefit in-domain (ID) transfer performance, where the training and testing data share the same distribution, it always deteriorates out-of-domain (OOD) performance, where training and testing data distribution are different. We empirically verify that the reason behind is noise in pre-training shapes the feature space differently. We then propose a light-weight black-box tuning method (NMTune) to affine the feature space to mitigate the malignant effect of noise and improve generalization on both ID and OOD tasks, considering one may not be able to fully fine-tune or even access the pre-trained models. We conduct practical experiments on popular vision and language models that are pre-trained on noisy data for evaluation of our approach. Our analysis and results show the importance of this interesting and novel research direction, which we term Noisy Model Learning.
Zahra Kadkhodaie, Florentin Guth, Eero P Simoncelli, Stéphane Mallat
tl;dr: Diffusion models transition from memorization to generalization by being inductively biased towards geometry-adaptive harmonic representations.
High-quality samples generated with score-based reverse diffusion algorithms provide evidence that deep neural networks (DNN) trained for denoising can learn high-dimensional densities, despite the curse of dimensionality. However, recent reports of memorization of the training set raise the question of whether these networks are learning the ``true'' density of the data. Here, we show that two denoising DNNs trained on non-overlapping subsets of a dataset learn nearly the same score function, and thus the same density, with a surprisingly small number of training images. This strong generalization demonstrates the existence of powerful inductive biases in the DNN architecture and/or training algorithm. We analyze these, demonstrating that the denoiser performs a shrinkage operation in a basis adapted to the underlying image. Examination of these bases reveals oscillating harmonic structures along contours and in homogeneous image regions. We show that trained denoisers are inductively biased towards these geometry-adaptive harmonic representations by demonstrating that they arise even when the network is trained on image classes such as low-dimensional manifolds for which the harmonic basis is suboptimal. Additionally, we show that the denoising performance of the networks is near-optimal when trained on regular image classes for which the optimal basis is known to be geometry-adaptive and harmonic.
Bohang Zhang, Jingchu Gai, Yiheng Du, Qiwei Ye, Di He, Liwei Wang
Designing expressive Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) is a fundamental topic in the graph learning community. So far, GNN expressiveness has been primarily assessed via the Weisfeiler-Lehman (WL) hierarchy. However, such an expressivity measure has notable limitations: it is inherently coarse, qualitative, and may not well reflect practical requirements (e.g., the ability to encode substructures). In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for quantitatively studying the expressiveness of GNN architectures, addressing all the above limitations. Specifically, we identify a fundamental expressivity measure termed homomorphism expressivity, which quantifies the ability of GNN models to count graphs under homomorphism. Homomorphism expressivity offers a complete and practical assessment tool: the completeness enables direct expressivity comparisons between GNN models, while the practicality allows for understanding concrete GNN abilities such as subgraph counting. By examining four classes of prominent GNNs as case studies, we derive simple, unified, and elegant descriptions of their homomorphism expressivity for both invariant and equivariant settings. Our results provide novel insights into a series of previous work, unify the landscape of different subareas in the community, and settle several open questions. Empirically, extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world tasks verify our theory, showing that the practical performance of GNN models aligns well with the proposed metric.
Gabriel Cardoso, Yazid Janati el idrissi, Eric Moulines, Sylvain Le Corff
Ill-posed linear inverse problems arise frequently in various applications, from computational photography to medical imaging. A recent line of research exploits Bayesian inference with informative priors to handle the ill-posedness of such problems. Amongst such priors, score-based generative models (SGM) have recently been successfully applied to several different inverse problems. In this study, we exploit the particular structure of the prior defined by the SGM to define a sequence of intermediate linear inverse problems. As the noise level decreases, the posteriors of these inverse problems get closer to the target posterior of the original inverse problem. To sample from this sequence of posteriors, we propose the use of Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods. The proposed algorithm, \algo, is shown to be theoretically grounded and we provide numerical simulations showing that it outperforms competing baselines when dealing with ill-posed inverse problems in a Bayesian setting.
Edward S. Hu, James Springer, Oleh Rybkin, Dinesh Jayaraman
tl;dr: We study how privileged, training-time only observation streams can aid skill learning, and instantiate a MBRL algorithm that incorporates privileged sensing into all auxiliary, training-time components of RL to better train the policy.
We need to look at our shoelaces as we first learn to tie them but having mastered this skill, can do it from touch alone. We call this phenomenon “sensory scaffolding”: observation streams that are not needed by a master might yet aid a novice learner. We consider such sensory scaffolding setups for training artificial agents. For example, a robot arm may need to be deployed with just a low-cost, robust, general-purpose camera; yet its performance may improve by having privileged training-time-only access to informative albeit expensive and unwieldy motion capture rigs or fragile tactile sensors. For these settings, we propose _Scaffolder_, a reinforcement learning approach which effectively exploits privileged sensing in critics, world models, reward estimators, and other such auxiliary components that are only used at training time, to improve the target policy. For evaluating sensory scaffolding agents, we design a new “S3” suite of ten diverse simulated robotic tasks that explore a wide range of practical sensor setups. Agents must use privileged camera sensing to train blind hurdlers, privileged active visual perception to help robot arms overcome visual occlusions, privileged touch sensors to train robot hands, and more. _Scaffolder_ easily outperforms relevant prior baselines and frequently performs comparably even to policies that have test-time access to the privileged sensors. Website: https://sites.google.com/view/sensory-scaffolding
Yapei Chang, Kyle Lo, Tanya Goyal, Mohit Iyyer
Summarizing book-length documents ($>$100K tokens) that exceed the context window size of large language models (LLMs) requires first breaking the input document into smaller chunks and then prompting an LLM to merge, update, and compress chunk-level summaries. Despite the complexity and importance of this task, it has yet to be meaningfully studied due to the challenges of evaluation: existing book-length summarization datasets (e.g., BookSum) are in the pretraining data of most public LLMs, and existing evaluation methods struggle to capture errors made by modern LLM summarizers. In this paper, we present the first study of the coherence of LLM-based book-length summarizers implemented via two prompting workflows: (1) hierarchically merging chunk-level summaries, and (2) incrementally updating a running summary. We obtain 1193 fine-grained human annotations on GPT-4 generated summaries of 100 recently-published books and identify eight common types of coherence errors made by LLMs. Because human evaluation is expensive and time-consuming, we develop an automatic metric, BooookScore, that measures the proportion of sentences in a summary that do not contain any of the identified error types. BooookScore has high agreement with human annotations and allows us to systematically evaluate the impact of many other critical parameters (e.g., chunk size, base LLM) while saving \$15K and 500 hours in human evaluation costs. We find that closed-source LLMs such as GPT-4 and Claude 2 produce summaries with higher BooookScore than the oft-repetitive ones generated by LLaMA 2. Incremental updating yields lower BooookScore but higher level of detail than hierarchical merging, a trade-off sometimes preferred by human annotators. We release code and annotations after blind review to spur more principled research on book-length summarization.
Yicong Hong, Kai Zhang, Jiuxiang Gu, Sai Bi, Yang Zhou, Difan Liu, Feng Liu, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Trung Bui, Hao Tan
tl;dr: A transformer-based Large Reconstruction Model (LRM) that predicts the 3D model of an object from a single image within just 5 seconds.
We propose the first Large Reconstruction Model (LRM) that predicts the 3D model of an object from a single input image within just 5 seconds. In contrast to many previous methods that are trained on small-scale datasets such as ShapeNet in a category-specific fashion, LRM adopts a highly scalable transformer-based architecture with 500 million learnable parameters to directly predict a neural radiance field (NeRF) from the input image. We train our model in an end-to-end manner on massive multi-view data containing around 1 million objects, including both synthetic renderings from Objaverse and real captures from MVImgNet. This combination of a high-capacity model and large-scale training data empowers our model to be highly generalizable and produce high-quality 3D reconstructions from various testing inputs, including real-world in-the-wild captures and images created by generative models. Video demos and interactable 3D meshes can be found on our LRM project webpage: https://yiconghong.me/LRM.
Yogesh Verma, Markus Heinonen, Vikas Garg
tl;dr: We introduce a novel climate modeling approach, inspired by physics, using ODEs that capture underlying inductive biases and allow for uncertainty quantification in predictions.
Climate prediction traditionally relies on complex numerical simulations of atmospheric physics. Deep learning approaches, such as transformers, have recently challenged the simulation paradigm with complex network forecasts. However, they often act as data-driven black-box models that neglect the underlying physics and lack uncertainty quantification. We address these limitations with ClimODE, a spatiotemporal continuous-time process that implements a key principle of advection from statistical mechanics, namely, weather changes due to a spatial movement of quantities over time. ClimODE models precise weather evolution with value-conserving dynamics, learning global weather transport as a neural flow, which also enables estimating the uncertainty in predictions. Our approach outperforms existing data-driven methods in global and regional forecasting with an order of magnitude smaller parameterization, establishing a new state of the art.
PengFei Zheng, Yonggang Zhang, Zhen Fang, Tongliang Liu, Defu Lian, Bo Han
Image interpolation based on diffusion models is promising in creating fresh and interesting images. Advanced interpolation methods mainly focus on spherical linear interpolation, where images are encoded into the noise space and then interpolated for denoising to images. However, existing methods face challenges in effectively interpolating natural images (not generated by diffusion models), thereby restricting their practical applicability. Our experimental investigations reveal that these challenges stem from the invalidity of the encoding noise, which may no longer obey the expected noise distribution, e.g., a normal distribution. To address these challenges, we propose a novel approach to correct noise for image interpolation, NoiseDiffusion. Specifically, NoiseDiffusion approaches the invalid noise to the expected distribution by introducing subtle Gaussian noise and introduces a constraint to suppress noise with extreme values. In this context, promoting noise validity contributes to mitigating image artifacts, but the constraint and introduced exogenous noise typically lead to a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio, i.e., loss of original image information. Hence, NoiseDiffusion performs interpolation within the noisy image space and injects raw images into these noisy counterparts to address the challenge of information loss. Consequently, NoiseDiffusion enables us to interpolate natural images without causing artifacts or information loss, thus achieving the best interpolation results.
Marco Federici, Patrick Forré, Ryota Tomioka, Bastiaan S. Veeling
tl;dr: We introduce a tractable objective to represent, simplify and simulate Markov processes based on the Information Bottleneck principle. We motivate our model both theoretically and empirically on synthetic data and molecular dynamics.
Markov processes are widely used mathematical models for describing dynamic systems in various fields. However, accurately simulating large-scale systems at long time scales is computationally expensive due to the short time steps required for accurate integration. In this paper, we introduce an inference process that maps complex systems into a simplified representational space and models large jumps in time. To achieve this, we propose Time-lagged Information Bottleneck (T-IB), a principled objective rooted in information theory, which aims to capture relevant temporal features while discarding high-frequency information to simplify the simulation task and minimize the inference error. Our experiments demonstrate that T-IB learns information-optimal representations for accurately modeling the statistical properties and dynamics of the original process at a selected time lag, outperforming existing time-lagged dimensionality reduction methods.
Kai Shen, Zeqian Ju, Xu Tan, Eric Liu, Yichong Leng, Lei He, Tao Qin, sheng zhao, Jiang Bian
tl;dr: A large-scale text-to-speech and singing voice synthesis system with latent diffusion models.
Scaling text-to-speech (TTS) to large-scale, multi-speaker, and in-the-wild datasets is important to capture the diversity in human speech such as speaker identities, prosodies, and styles (e.g., singing). Current large TTS systems usually quantize speech into discrete tokens and use language models to generate these tokens one by one, which suffer from unstable prosody, word skipping/repeating issue, and poor voice quality. In this paper, we develop NaturalSpeech 2, a TTS system that leverages a neural audio codec with residual vector quantizers to get the quantized latent vectors and uses a diffusion model to generate these latent vectors conditioned on text input. To enhance the zero-shot capability that is important to achieve diverse speech synthesis, we design a speech prompting mechanism to facilitate in-context learning in the diffusion model and the duration/pitch predictor. We scale NaturalSpeech 2 to large-scale datasets with 44K hours of speech and singing data and evaluate its voice quality on unseen speakers. NaturalSpeech 2 outperforms previous TTS systems by a large margin in terms of prosody/timbre similarity, robustness, and voice quality in a zero-shot setting, and performs novel zero-shot singing synthesis with only a speech prompt. Audio samples are available at https://naturalspeech2.github.io/.
Karim Ahmed Abdel Sadek, Marek Elias
tl;dr: We present 1-consistent, smooth, and robust algorithm for caching and consistent, smooth and robust algorithm for MTS with limited access to predictor
ML-augmented algorithms utilize predictions to achieve performance beyond their worst-case bounds. Producing these predictions might be a costly operation – this motivated Im et al. [2022] to introduce the study of algorithms which use predictions parsimoniously. We design parsimonious algorithms for caching and MTS with action predictions, proposed by Antoniadis et al. [2023], focusing on the parameters of consistency (performance with perfect predictions) and smoothness (dependence of their performance on prediction error). Our algorithm for caching is 1-consistent, robust, and its smoothness deteriorates with decreasing number of available predictions. We propose an algorithm for general MTS whose consistency and smoothness both scale linearly with the decreasing number of predictions. Without restriction on the number of available predictions, both algorithms match the earlier guarantees achieved by Antoniadis et al. [2023].
Hang Xu, Kai Li, Haobo Fu, QIANG FU, Junliang Xing, Jian Cheng
Counterfactual regret minimization (CFR) is a family of iterative algorithms showing promising results in solving imperfect-information games. Recent novel CFR variants (e.g., CFR+, DCFR) have significantly improved the convergence rate of the vanilla CFR. The key to these CFR variants’ performance is weighting each iteration non-uniformly, i.e., discounting earlier iterations. However, these algorithms use a fixed, manually-specified scheme to weight each iteration, which enormously limits their potential. In this work, we propose Dynamic Discounted CFR (DDCFR), the first equilibrium-finding framework that discounts prior iterations using a dynamic, automatically-learned scheme. We formalize CFR’s iteration process as a carefully designed Markov decision process and transform the discounting scheme learning problem into a policy optimization problem within it. The learned discounting scheme dynamically weights each iteration on the fly using information available at runtime. Experimental results across multiple games demonstrate that DDCFR’s dynamic discounting scheme has a strong generalization ability and leads to faster convergence with improved performance. The code is available at https://github.com/rpSebastian/DDCFR.
Md Mofijul Islam, Alexi Gladstone, Riashat Islam, Tariq Iqbal
tl;dr: We present EQA-MX, a dataset and benchmark tasks for embodied multimodal QA, and VQ-Fusion model, enhancing visual-language alignment that outperforming existing models by 13%.
Humans predominantly use verbal utterances and nonverbal gestures (e.g., eye gaze and pointing gestures) in their natural interactions. For instance, pointing gestures and verbal information is often required to comprehend questions such as "what object is that?" Thus, this question-answering (QA) task involves complex reasoning of multimodal expressions (verbal utterances and nonverbal gestures). However, prior works have explored QA tasks in non-embodied settings, where questions solely contain verbal utterances from a single verbal and visual perspective. In this paper, we have introduced 8 novel embodied question answering (EQA) tasks to develop learning models to comprehend embodied questions with multimodal expressions. We have developed a novel large-scale dataset, EQA-MX, with over 8 million diverse embodied QA data samples involving multimodal expressions from multiple visual and verbal perspectives. To learn salient multimodal representations from discrete verbal embeddings and continuous wrapping of multiview visual representations, we propose a vector-quantization (VQ) based multimodal representation learning model, VQ-Fusion, for the EQA tasks. Our extensive experimental results suggest that VQ-Fusion can improve the performance of existing state-of-the-art visual-language models up to 13% across EQA tasks.
Wei Mao, Richard Hartley, Mathieu Salzmann, miaomiao Liu
In this paper, we tackle the problem of 3D reconstruction of dynamic scenes from multi-view videos. Previous dynamic scene reconstruction works either attempt to model the motion of 3D points in space, which constrains them to handle a single articulated object or require depth maps as input. By contrast, we propose to directly estimate the change of Signed Distance Function (SDF), namely SDF flow, of the dynamic scene. We show that the SDF flow captures the evolution of the scene surface. We further derive the mathematical relation between the SDF flow and the scene flow, which allows us to calculate the scene flow from the SDF flow analytically by solving linear equations. Our experiments on real-world multi-view video datasets show that our reconstructions are better than those of the state-of-the-art methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/wei-mao-2019/SDFFlow.git.
Peng Wang, Hao Tan, Sai Bi, Yinghao Xu, Fujun Luan, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Wenping Wang, Zexiang Xu, Kai Zhang
We propose a Pose-Free Large Reconstruction Model (PF-LRM) for reconstructing a 3D object from a few unposed images even with little visual overlap, while simultaneously estimating the camera poses in 1.3 seconds on a single A100 GPU. PF-LRM is a highly scalable method utilizing the self-attention blocks to exchange information between 3D object tokens and 2D image tokens; we predict coarse geometry for each view, and then use a differentiable Perspective-n-Point (PnP) solver to obtain camera poses. When trained on a huge amount of multi-view data, PF-LRM shows strong cross-dataset generalization ability, and outperforms baseline methods by a large margin in terms of pose prediction accuracy and 3D reconstruction quality on various evaluation datasets. We also demonstrate our model's robustness to variable numbers of input views and segmentation mask errors. Our project website is at: https://pf-lrm.github.io/project.
Yuan Liu, Cheng Lin, Zijiao Zeng, Xiaoxiao Long, Lingjie Liu, Taku Komura, Wenping Wang
tl;dr: SyncDreamer is able to generate multiview-consistent images for single-view 3D reconstruction of arbitary objects.
In this paper, we present a novel diffusion model called SyncDreamer that generates multiview-consistent images from a single-view image. Using pretrained large-scale 2D diffusion models, recent work Zero123 demonstrates the ability to generate plausible novel views from a single-view image of an object. However, maintaining consistency in geometry and colors for the generated images remains a challenge. To address this issue, we propose a synchronized multiview diffusion model that models the joint probability distribution of multiview images, enabling the generation of multiview-consistent images in a single reverse process. SyncDreamer synchronizes the intermediate states of all the generated images at every step of the reverse process through a 3D-aware feature attention mechanism that correlates the corresponding features across different views. Experiments show that SyncDreamer generates images with high consistency across different views, thus making it well-suited for various 3D generation tasks such as novel-view-synthesis, text-to-3D, and image-to-3D. Project page: https://liuyuan-pal.github.io/SyncDreamer/.
Linlu Qiu, Liwei Jiang, Ximing Lu, Melanie Sclar, Valentina Pyatkin, Chandra Bhagavatula, Bailin Wang, Yoon Kim, Yejin Choi, Nouha Dziri, Xiang Ren
The ability to derive the underlying principles from a handful of observations and then generalize to novel situations---known as inductive reasoning---is central to human intelligence. Prior work suggests that language models (LMs) often fall short on inductive reasoning, despite achieving impressive success on research benchmarks. In this work, we conduct a systematic study of the inductive reasoning capabilities of LMs through $\textit{iterative hypothesis refinement}$, a technique that more closely mirrors the human inductive process than standard input-output prompting. Iterative hypothesis refinement employs a three-step process: proposing, selecting, and refining hypotheses in the form of textual rules. By examining the intermediate rules, we observe that LMs are phenomenal $\textit{hypothesis proposers}$ (i.e., generating candidate rules), and when coupled with a (task-specific) symbolic interpreter that is able to systematically filter the proposed set of rules, this hybrid approach achieves strong results across inductive reasoning benchmarks that require inducing causal relations, language-like instructions, and symbolic concepts. However, they also behave as puzzling $\textit{inductive reasoners}$, showing notable performance gaps in rule induction (i.e., identifying plausible rules) and rule application (i.e., applying proposed rules to instances), suggesting that LMs are proposing hypotheses without being able to actually apply the rules. Through extensive empirical and human analyses, we further reveal several discrepancies between the inductive reasoning processes of LMs and humans, shedding light on both the potentials and limitations of using LMs in inductive reasoning tasks.
Lin-Han Jia, Lan-Zhe Guo, Zhi Zhou, Yu-Feng Li
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has emerged as a promising paradigm to alleviate the dependency on abundant labeled data by harnessing the power of unlabeled data. Although many SSL algorithms have been proposed, their performance in practical applications is not robust because the assumption that labeled and unlabeled data are consistent does not hold. In open environments, the sources of labeled and unlabeled data may differ, leading to inconsistent data distributions and even data spaces. This paper points out that previous research on robust SSL has approached the problem from a static perspective, thereby only achieving local robustness rather than global robustness. We reshape the research framework of robust SSL by using the Robustness Analysis Curve (RAC) and the associated metrics defined based on it. Based on these metrics, we build a benchmark that encompasses three types of open environments: inconsistent data distributions, inconsistent label spaces, and inconsistent feature spaces to assess the performance of widely used statistical and deep SSL algorithms with tabular, image, and text datasets. This paper also conducted a detailed analysis, based on experimental results and theory, on how to make SSL algorithms more robust in open environments.
Dustin Podell, Zion English, Kyle Lacey, Andreas Blattmann, Tim Dockhorn, Jonas Müller, Joe Penna, Robin Rombach
We present Stable Diffusion XL (SDXL), a latent diffusion model for text-to-image synthesis. Compared to previous versions of Stable Diffusion, SDXL leverages a three times larger UNet backbone, achieved by significantly increasing the number of attention blocks and including a second text encoder. Further, we design multiple novel conditioning schemes and train SDXL on multiple aspect ratios. To ensure highest quality results, we also introduce a refinement model which is used to improve the visual fidelity of samples generated by SDXL using a post-hoc image-to-image technique. We demonstrate that SDXL improves dramatically over previous versions of Stable Diffusion and achieves results competitive with those of black-box state-of-the-art image generators such as Midjourney.
Yossi Gandelsman, Alexei A Efros, Jacob Steinhardt
tl;dr: We investigate the CLIP image encoder by analyzing how individual model components affect the final representation
We investigate the CLIP image encoder by analyzing how individual model components affect the final representation. We decompose the image representation as a sum across individual image patches, model layers, and attention heads, and use CLIP's text representation to interpret the summands. Interpreting the attention heads, we characterize each head's role by automatically finding text representations that span its output space, which reveals property-specific roles for many heads (e.g. location or shape). Next, interpreting the image patches, we uncover an emergent spatial localization within CLIP. Finally, we use this understanding to remove spurious features from CLIP and to create a strong zero-shot image segmenter. Our results indicate that scalable understanding of transformer models is attainable and can be used to repair and improve models.
Priyank Jaini, Kevin Clark, Robert Geirhos
tl;dr: Generative classifiers based on text-to-image generative models approximate human object recognition data surprisingly well.
What is the best paradigm to recognize objects---discriminative inference (fast but potentially prone to shortcut learning) or using a generative model (slow but potentially more robust)? We build on recent advances in generative modeling that turn text-to-image models into classifiers. This allows us to study their behavior and to compare them against discriminative models and human psychophysical data. We report four intriguing emergent properties of generative classifiers: they show a record-breaking human-like shape bias (99% for Imagen), near human-level out-of-distribution accuracy, state-of-the-art alignment with human classification errors, and they understand certain perceptual illusions. Our results indicate that while the current dominant paradigm for modeling human object recognition is discriminative inference, zero-shot generative models approximate human object recognition data surprisingly well.
Yuxin Wen, Yuchen Liu, Chen Chen, Lingjuan Lyu
Recent breakthroughs in diffusion models have exhibited exceptional image-generation capabilities. However, studies show that some outputs are merely replications of training data. Such replications present potential legal challenges for model owners, especially when the generated content contains proprietary information. In this work, we introduce a straightforward yet effective method for detecting memorized prompts by inspecting the magnitude of text-conditional predictions. Our proposed method seamlessly integrates without disrupting sampling algorithms, and delivers high accuracy even at the first generation step, with a single generation per prompt. Building on our detection strategy, we unveil an explainable approach that shows the contribution of individual words or tokens to memorization. This offers an interactive medium for users to adjust their prompts. Moreover, we propose two strategies i.e., to mitigate memorization by leveraging the magnitude of text-conditional predictions, either through minimization during inference or filtering during training. These proposed strategies effectively counteract memorization while maintaining high-generation quality. Code is available at https://github.com/YuxinWenRick/diffusion_memorization.
Sohan Patnaik, Heril Changwal, Milan Aggarwal, Sumit Bhatia, Yaman Kumar, Balaji Krishnamurthy
tl;dr: A content relevance based noise reduction framework for table QA that weighs the table content based on its relevance to question without removing table content explicitly.
Table understanding capability of Large Language Models (LLMs) has been extensively studied through the task of question-answering (QA) over tables. Typically, only a small part of the whole table is relevant to derive the answer for a given question. The irrelevant parts act as noise and are distracting information, resulting in sub-optimal performance due to the vulnerability of LLMs to noise. To mitigate this, we propose CABINET (Content RelevAnce-Based NoIse ReductioN for TablE QuesTion-Answering) – a framework to enable LLMs to focus on relevant tabular data by suppressing extraneous information. CABINET comprises an Unsupervised Relevance Scorer (URS), trained differentially with the QA LLM, that weighs the table content based on its relevance to the input question before feeding it to the question answering LLM (QA LLM). To further aid the relevance scorer, CABINET employs a weakly supervised module that generates a parsing statement describing the criteria of rows and columns relevant to the question and highlights the content of corresponding table cells. CABINET significantly outperforms various tabular LLM baselines, as well as GPT3-based in-context learning methods, is more robust to noise, maintains outperformance on tables of varying sizes, and establishes new SoTA performance on WikiTQ, FeTaQA, and WikiSQL datasets. We release our code and datasets here.
Yeming Wen, Swarat Chaudhuri
tl;dr: we introduce Fast LoRA (FLoRA), a framework in which each input example in a minibatch can be associated with its unique low-rank adaptation weights, allowing for efficient batching for diverse LLM queries.
Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA) has recently gained attention for fine-tuning foundation models by incorporating trainable low-rank matrices, thereby reducing the number of trainable parameters. While \lora/ offers numerous advantages, its applicability for real-time serving to a diverse and global user base is constrained by its incapability to handle multiple task-specific adapters efficiently. This imposes a performance bottleneck in scenarios requiring personalized, task-specific adaptations for each incoming request. To address this, we introduce FLORA (Fast LoRA), a framework in which each input example in a minibatch can be associated with its unique low-rank adaptation weights, allowing for efficient batching of heterogeneous requests. We empirically demonstrate that \flora/ retains the performance merits of \lora/, showcasing competitive results on the MultiPL-E code generation benchmark spanning over 8 languages and a multilingual speech recognition task across 6 languages.
Joseph Early, Gavin Cheung, Kurt Cutajar, Hanting Xie, Jas Kandola, Niall Twomey
Conventional Time Series Classification (TSC) methods are often black boxes that obscure inherent interpretation of their decision-making processes. In this work, we leverage Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) to overcome this issue, and propose a new framework called MILLET: Multiple Instance Learning for Locally Explainable Time series classification. We apply MILLET to existing deep learning TSC models and show how they become inherently interpretable without compromising (and in some cases, even improving) predictive performance. We evaluate MILLET on 85 UCR TSC datasets and also present a novel synthetic dataset that is specially designed to facilitate interpretability evaluation. On these datasets, we show MILLET produces sparse explanations quickly that are of higher quality than other well-known interpretability methods. To the best of our knowledge, our work with MILLET is the first to develop general MIL methods for TSC and apply them to an extensive variety of domains.
Kaizhi Yang, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Zhiao Huang, Xuejin Chen, Zexiang Xu, Hao Su
tl;dr: We present MovingParts, a NeRF-based method for dynamic scene reconstruction and part discovery based on motion.
We present MovingParts, a NeRF-based method for dynamic scene reconstruction and part discovery. We consider motion as an important cue for identifying parts, that all particles on the same part share the common motion pattern. From the perspective of fluid simulation, existing deformation-based methods for dynamic NeRF can be seen as parameterizing the scene motion under the Eulerian view, i.e., focusing on specific locations in space through which the fluid flows as time passes. However, it is intractable to extract the motion of constituting objects or parts using the Eulerian view representation. In this work, we introduce the dual Lagrangian view and enforce representations under the Eulerian/Lagrangian views to be cycle-consistent. Under the Lagrangian view, we parameterize the scene motion by tracking the trajectory of particles on objects. The Lagrangian view makes it convenient to discover parts by factorizing the scene motion as a composition of part-level rigid motions. Experimentally, our method can achieve fast and high-quality dynamic scene reconstruction from even a single moving camera, and the induced part-based representation allows direct applications of part tracking, animation, 3D scene editing, etc.
Maciej Mikuła, Szymon Tworkowski, Szymon Antoniak, Bartosz Piotrowski, Albert Q. Jiang, Jin Peng Zhou, Christian Szegedy, Łukasz Kuciński, Piotr Miłoś, Yuhuai Wu
tl;dr: Contrastively trained transformers outperform state-of-the-art symbolic methods for premise selection, a challenging reasoning task of selecting relevant facts for proving new theorems in formal mathematics.
This paper presents a novel approach to premise selection, a crucial reasoning task in automated theorem proving. Traditionally, symbolic methods that rely on extensive domain knowledge and engineering effort are applied to this task. In contrast, this work demonstrates that contrastive training with the transformer architecture can achieve higher-quality retrieval of relevant premises, without the knowledge or feature engineering overhead. Our method, Magnushammer, outperforms the most advanced and widely used automation tool in interactive theorem proving called Sledgehammer. On the PISA and miniF2f benchmarks Magnushammer achieves $59.5\%$ (against $38.3\%$) and $34.0\%$ (against $20.9\%$) success rates, respectively. By combining Magnushammer with a language-model-based automated theorem prover, we further improve the state-of-the-art proof success rate from $57.0\%$ to $71.0\%$ on the PISA benchmark using $4$x fewer parameters. Moreover, we develop and open source a novel dataset for premise selection, containing textual representations of (proof state, relevant premise) pairs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest available premise selection dataset, and the first dataset of this kind for the Isabelle proof assistant.
Xinyu Tang, Richard Shin, Huseyin A Inan, Andre Manoel, Fatemehsadat Mireshghallah, Zinan Lin, Sivakanth Gopi, Janardhan Kulkarni, Robert Sim
We study the problem of in-context learning (ICL) with large language models (LLMs) on private datasets. This scenario poses privacy risks, as LLMs may leak or regurgitate the private examples demonstrated in the prompt. We propose a novel algorithm that generates synthetic few-shot demonstrations from the private dataset with formal differential privacy (DP) guarantees, and show empirically that it can achieve effective ICL. We conduct extensive experiments on standard benchmarks and compare our algorithm with non-private ICL and zero-shot solutions. Our results demonstrate that our algorithm can achieve competitive performance with strong privacy levels. These results open up new possibilities for ICL with privacy protection for a broad range of applications.
Giorgio Mariani, Irene Tallini, Emilian Postolache, Michele Mancusi, Luca Cosmo, Emanuele Rodolà
tl;dr: In this work, we define a diffusion-based generative model which is the first to be capable of both music generation and source separation. We also introduce the partial generation task, where we generate a subset of the sources given the others.
In this work, we define a diffusion-based generative model capable of both music generation and source separation by learning the score of the joint probability density of sources sharing a context. Alongside the classic total inference tasks (i.e., generating a mixture, separating the sources), we also introduce and experiment on the partial generation task of source imputation, where we generate a subset of the sources given the others (e.g., play a piano track that goes well with the drums). Additionally, we introduce a novel inference method for the separation task based on Dirac likelihood functions. We train our model on Slakh2100, a standard dataset for musical source separation, provide qualitative results in the generation settings, and showcase competitive quantitative results in the source separation setting. Our method is the first example of a single model that can handle both generation and separation tasks, thus representing a step toward general audio models.
Timothée Darcet, Maxime Oquab, Julien Mairal, Piotr Bojanowski
tl;dr: We find artifacts in ViT features. We add new tokens (“registers”) that fix this issue.
Transformers have recently emerged as a powerful tool for learning visual representations. In this paper, we identify and characterize artifacts in feature maps of both supervised and self-supervised ViT networks. The artifacts correspond to high-norm tokens appearing during inference primarily in low-informative background areas of images, that are repurposed for internal computations. We propose a simple yet effective solution based on providing additional tokens to the input sequence of the Vision Transformer to fill that role. We show that this solution fixes that problem entirely for both supervised and self-supervised models, sets a new state of the art for self-supervised visual models on dense visual prediction tasks, enables object discovery methods with larger models, and most importantly leads to smoother feature maps and attention maps for downstream visual processing.
Yuxuan Song, Jingjing Gong, Hao Zhou, Mingyue Zheng, Jingjing Liu, Wei-Ying Ma
tl;dr: A new 3D molecule generative model based on Bayesian Flow Networks
Advanced generative model (\textit{e.g.}, diffusion model) derived from simplified continuity assumptions of data distribution, though showing promising progress, has been difficult to apply directly to geometry generation applications due to the \textit{multi-modality} and \textit{noise-sensitive} nature of molecule geometry. This work introduces Geometric Bayesian Flow Networks (GeoBFN), which naturally fits molecule geometry by modeling diverse modalities in the differentiable parameter space of distributions. GeoBFN maintains the SE-(3) invariant density modeling property by incorporating equivariant inter-dependency modeling on parameters of distributions and unifying the probabilistic modeling of different modalities. Through optimized training and sampling techniques, we demonstrate that GeoBFN achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple 3D molecule generation benchmarks in terms of generation quality (90.87\% molecule stability in QM9 and 85.6\% atom stability in GEOM-DRUG\footnote{The scores are reported at 1k sampling steps for fair comparison, and our scores could be further improved if sampling sufficiently longer steps.}). GeoBFN can also conduct sampling with any number of steps to reach an optimal trade-off between efficiency and quality (\textit{e.g.}, 20$\times$ speedup without sacrificing performance).
Lirui Wang, Yiyang Ling, Zhecheng Yuan, Mohit Shridhar, Chen Bao, Yuzhe Qin, Bailin Wang, Huazhe Xu, Xiaolong Wang
tl;dr: We investigated LLM's capability to generate over 100 simulation tasks for training language-conditioned multitask robotic manipulation policy, which demonstrates task-level generalization in both simulation and the real world.
Collecting large amounts of real-world interaction data to train general robotic policies is often prohibitively expensive, thus motivating the use of simulation data. However, existing methods for data generation have generally focused on scene-level diversity (e.g., object instances and poses) rather than task-level diversity, due to the human effort required to come up with and verify novel tasks. This has made it challenging for policies trained on simulation data to demonstrate significant task-level generalization. In this paper, we propose to automatically generate rich simulation environments and expert demonstrations by exploiting a large language models' (LLM) grounding and coding ability. Our approach, dubbed GenSim, has two modes: goal-directed generation, wherein a target task is given to the LLM and the LLM proposes a task curriculum to solve the target task, and exploratory generation, wherein the LLM bootstraps from previous tasks and iteratively proposes novel tasks that would be helpful in solving more complex tasks. We use GPT4 to expand the existing benchmark by ten times to over 100 tasks, on which we conduct supervised finetuning and evaluate several LLMs including finetuned GPTs and Code Llama on code generation for robotic simulation tasks. Furthermore, we observe that LLMs-generated simulation programs can enhance task-level generalization significantly when used for multitask policy training. We further find that with minimal sim-to-real adaptation, the multitask policies pretrained on GPT4-generated simulation tasks exhibit stronger transfer to unseen long-horizon tasks in the real world and outperform baselines by 25%. See our project website (https://gen-sim.github.io) and demo (https://huggingface.co/spaces/Gen-Sim/Gen-Sim) for visualizations and open-source models and datasets.
Marko Mihajlovic, Sergey Prokudin, Marc Pollefeys, Siyu Tang
tl;dr: A novel time-dependent layer for MLPs to improve capturing and reconstruction of spatiotemporal signals.
Neural fields, a category of neural networks trained to represent high-frequency signals, have gained significant attention in recent years due to their impressive performance in modeling complex 3D data, such as signed distance (SDFs) or radiance fields (NeRFs), via a single multi-layer perceptron (MLP). However, despite the power and simplicity of representing signals with an MLP, these methods still face challenges when modeling large and complex temporal signals due to the limited capacity of MLPs. In this paper, we propose an effective approach to address this limitation by incorporating temporal residual layers into neural fields, dubbed ResFields. It is a novel class of networks specifically designed to effectively represent complex temporal signals. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the properties of ResFields and propose a matrix factorization technique to reduce the number of trainable parameters and enhance generalization capabilities. Importantly, our formulation seamlessly integrates with existing MLP-based neural fields and consistently improves results across various challenging tasks: 2D video approximation, dynamic shape modeling via temporal SDFs, and dynamic NeRF reconstruction. Lastly, we demonstrate the practical utility of ResFields by showcasing its effectiveness in capturing dynamic 3D scenes from sparse RGBD cameras of a lightweight capture system.
Tennison Liu, Nicolás Astorga, Nabeel Seedat, Mihaela van der Schaar
Bayesian optimization (BO) is a powerful approach for optimizing complex and expensive-to-evaluate black-box functions. Its importance is underscored in many applications, notably including hyperparameter tuning, but its efficacy depends on efficiently balancing exploration and exploitation. While there has been substantial progress in BO methods, striking this balance still remains a delicate process. In this light, we present $\texttt{LLAMBO}$, a novel approach that integrates the capabilities of large language models (LLM) within BO. At a high level, we frame the BO problem in natural language terms, enabling LLMs to iteratively propose promising solutions conditioned on historical evaluations. More specifically, we explore how combining contextual understanding, few-shot learning proficiency, and domain knowledge of LLMs can enhance various components of model-based BO. Our findings illustrate that $\texttt{LLAMBO}$ is effective at zero-shot warmstarting, and improves surrogate modeling and candidate sampling, especially in the early stages of search when observations are sparse. Our approach is performed in context and does not require LLM finetuning. Additionally, it is modular by design, allowing individual components to be integrated into existing BO frameworks, or function cohesively as an end-to-end method. We empirically validate $\texttt{LLAMBO}$'s efficacy on the problem of hyperparameter tuning, highlighting strong empirical performance across a range of diverse benchmarks, proprietary, and synthetic tasks.
Runtian Zhai, Rattana Pukdee, Roger Jin, Maria Florina Balcan, Pradeep Kumar Ravikumar
tl;dr: STKR leverages unlabeled data by mixing the information from a kernel and data distribution via diffusion. We provide new STKR estimators applicable to the inductive setting, together with statistical guarantees and complexity analysis.
Unlabeled data is a key component of modern machine learning. In general, the role of unlabeled data is to impose a form of smoothness, usually from the similarity information encoded in a base kernel, such as the ϵ-neighbor kernel or the adjacency matrix of a graph. This work revisits the classical idea of spectrally transformed kernel regression (STKR), and provides a new class of general and scalable STKR estimators able to leverage unlabeled data. Intuitively, via spectral transformation, STKR exploits the data distribution for which unlabeled data can provide additional information. First, we show that STKR is a principled and general approach, by characterizing a universal type of “target smoothness”, and proving that any sufficiently smooth function can be learned by STKR. Second, we provide scalable STKR implementations for the inductive setting and a general transformation function, while prior work is mostly limited to the transductive setting. Third, we derive statistical guarantees for two scenarios: STKR with a known polynomial transformation, and STKR with kernel PCA when the transformation is unknown. Overall, we believe that this work helps deepen our understanding of how to work with unlabeled data, and its generality makes it easier to inspire new methods.
Zhengyi Luo, Jinkun Cao, Josh Merel, Alexander Winkler, Jing Huang, Kris M. Kitani, Weipeng Xu
tl;dr: We present a universal motion latent space for physics-based humanoid control.
We present a universal motion representation that encompasses a comprehensive range of motor skills for physics-based humanoid control. Due to the high-dimensionality of humanoid control as well as the inherent difficulties in reinforcement learning, prior methods have focused on learning skill embeddings for a narrow range of movement styles (e.g. locomotion, game characters) from specialized motion datasets. This limited scope hampers its applicability in complex tasks. Our work closes this gap, significantly increasing the coverage of motion representation space. To achieve this, we first learn a motion imitator that can imitate all of human motion from a large, unstructured motion dataset. We then create our motion representation by distilling skills directly from the imitator. This is achieved using an encoder-decoder structure with a variational information bottleneck. Additionally, we jointly learn a prior conditioned on proprioception (humanoid's own pose and velocities) to improve model expressiveness and sampling efficiency for downstream tasks. Sampling from the prior, we can generate long, stable, and diverse human motions. Using this latent space for hierarchical RL, we show that our policies solve tasks using natural and realistic human behavior. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our motion representation by solving generative tasks and motion tracking using VR controllers.
Nicklas Hansen, Hao Su, Xiaolong Wang
tl;dr: TD-MPC2 is a scalable, robust model-based RL algorithm that can be applied to diverse single-task and multi-task continuous control domains with a single set of hyperparameters.
TD-MPC is a model-based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm that performs local trajectory optimization in the latent space of a learned implicit (decoder-free) world model. In this work, we present TD-MPC2: a series of improvements upon the TD-MPC algorithm. We demonstrate that TD-MPC2 improves significantly over baselines across 104 online RL tasks spanning 4 diverse task domains, achieving consistently strong results with a single set of hyperparameters. We further show that agent capabilities increase with model and data size, and successfully train a single 317M parameter agent to perform 80 tasks across multiple task domains, embodiments, and action spaces. We conclude with an account of lessons, opportunities, and risks associated with large TD-MPC2 agents. Explore videos, models, data, code, and more at https://tdmpc2.com
Nuoya Xiong, Lijun Ding, Simon Shaolei Du
tl;dr: This paper study the different convergence behaviors of symmetric and asymmetric matrix sensing in exact and over-parameterized settings, and show the first exact convergence result of asymmetric matrix sensing.
This paper rigorously shows how over-parameterization dramatically changes the convergence behaviors of gradient descent (GD) for the matrix sensing problem, where the goal is to recover an unknown low-rank ground-truth matrix from near-isotropic linear measurements. First, we consider the symmetric setting with the symmetric parameterization where $M^* \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ is a positive semi-definite unknown matrix of rank $r \ll n$, and one uses a symmetric parameterization $XX^\top$ to learn $M^*$. Here $X \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times k}$ with $k > r$ is the factor matrix. We give a novel $\Omega\left(1/T^2\right)$ lower bound of randomly initialized GD for the over-parameterized case ($k >r$) where $T$ is the number of iterations. This is in stark contrast to the exact-parameterization scenario ($k=r$) where the convergence rate is $\exp\left(-\Omega\left(T\right)\right)$. Next, we study asymmetric setting where $M^* \in \mathbb{R}^{n_1 \times n_2}$ is the unknown matrix of rank $r \ll \min\{n_1,n_2\}$, and one uses an asymmetric parameterization $FG^\top$ to learn $M^*$ where $F \in \mathbb{R}^{n_1 \times k}$ and $G \in \mathbb{R}^{n_2 \times k}$. We give the first global exact convergence result of randomly initialized GD for the exact-parameterization case ($k=r$) with an $\exp\left(-\Omega\left(T\right)\right)$ rate. Furthermore, we give the first global exact convergence result for the over-parameterization case ($k>r$) with an $\exp\left(-\Omega\left(\alpha^2 T\right)\right)$ rate where $\alpha$ is the initialization scale. This linear convergence result in the over-parameterization case is especially significant because one can apply the asymmetric parameterization to the symmetric setting to speed up from $\Omega\left(1/T^2\right)$ to linear convergence. Therefore, we identify a surprising phenomenon: asymmetric parameterization can exponentially speed up convergence. Equally surprising is our analysis that highlights the importance of imbalance between $F$ and $G$. This is in sharp contrast to prior works which emphasize balance. We further give an example showing the dependency on $\alpha$ in the convergence rate is unavoidable in the worst case. On the other hand, we propose a novel method that only modifies one step of GD and obtains a convergence rate independent of $\alpha$, recovering the rate in the exact-parameterization case. We provide empirical studies to verify our theoretical findings.
Hyosoon Jang, Minsu Kim, Sungsoo Ahn
tl;dr: We investigate a learning-based approach to produce informative local credits that facilitate the partial inference of GFlowNet
This paper studies generative flow networks (GFlowNets) to sample objects from the Boltzmann energy distribution via a sequence of actions. In particular, we focus on improving GFlowNet with partial inference: training flow functions with the evaluation of the intermediate states or transitions. To this end, the recently developed forward-looking GFlowNet reparameterizes the flow functions based on evaluating the energy of intermediate states. However, such an evaluation of intermediate energies may (i) be too expensive or impossible to evaluate and (ii) even provide misleading training signals under large energy fluctuations along the sequence of actions. To resolve this issue, we propose learning energy decompositions for GFlowNets (LED-GFN). Our main idea is to (i) decompose the energy of an object into learnable potential functions defined on state transitions and (ii) reparameterize the flow functions using the potential functions. In particular, to produce informative local credits, we propose to regularize the potential to change smoothly over the sequence of actions. It is also noteworthy that training GFlowNet with our learned potential can preserve the optimal policy. We empirically verify the superiority of LED-GFN in five problems including the generation of unstructured and maximum independent sets, molecular graphs, and RNA sequences.
Jonathan Richens, Tom Everitt
tl;dr: We prove that agents that are capable of adapting to distributional shifts must have learned a causal model of their environment, establishing a formal equivalence between causality and transfer learning
It has long been hypothesised that causal reasoning plays a fundamental role in robust and general intelligence. However, it is not known if agents must learn causal models in order to generalise to new domains, or if other inductive biases are sufficient. We answer this question, showing that any agent capable of satisfying a regret bound under a large set of distributional shifts must have learned an approximate causal model of the data generating process, which converges to the true causal model for optimal agents. We discuss the implications of this result for several research areas including transfer learning and causal inference.
Longhui Yu, Weisen Jiang, Han Shi, Jincheng YU, Zhengying Liu, Yu Zhang, James Kwok, Zhenguo Li, Adrian Weller, Weiyang Liu
tl;dr: Bootstrap the mathematical questions in multiple perspectives and then finetune a powerful LLM
Large language models (LLMs) have pushed the limits of natural language understanding and exhibited excellent problem-solving ability. Despite the great success, most existing open-source LLMs (\eg, LLaMA-2) are still far away from satisfactory for solving mathematical problems due to the complex reasoning procedures. To bridge this gap, we propose \emph{MetaMath}, a finetuned language model that specializes in mathematical reasoning. Specifically, we start by bootstrapping mathematical questions by rewriting the question from multiple perspectives, which results in a new dataset called {MetaMathQA}. Then we finetune the LLaMA-2 models on MetaMathQA. Experimental results on two popular benchmarks (\ie, GSM8K and MATH) for mathematical reasoning demonstrate that MetaMath outperforms a suite of open-source LLMs by a significant margin. Our MetaMath-7B model achieves $66.5\%$ on GSM8K and $19.8\%$ on MATH, exceeding the state-of-the-art models of the same size by $11.5\%$ and $8.7\%$. Particularly, MetaMath-70B achieves an accuracy of $82.3\%$ on GSM8K, slightly better than GPT-3.5-Turbo. We release the MetaMathQA dataset, the MetaMath models with different model sizes and the training code for public use.
Zhijian Xu, Ailing Zeng, Qiang Xu
In this paper, we introduce FITS, a lightweight yet powerful model for time series analysis. Unlike existing models that directly process raw time-domain data, FITS operates on the principle that time series can be manipulated through interpolation in the complex frequency domain, achieving performance comparable to state-of-the-art models for time series forecasting and anomaly detection tasks. Notably, FITS accomplishes this with a svelte profile of just about $10k$ parameters, making it ideally suited for edge devices and paving the way for a wide range of applications. The code is available for review at: \url{https://anonymous.4open.science/r/FITS}.
Ido Amos, Jonathan Berant, Ankit Gupta
tl;dr: Training a model directly on a dataset from sctrach can lead to grossly under-estimated performance. For proper evaluation, one must first pretrain on the dataset and then finetune.
Modeling long-range dependencies across sequences is a longstanding goal in machine learning and has led to architectures, such as state space models, that dramatically outperform Transformers on long sequences. However, these impressive empirical gains have been by and large demonstrated on benchmarks (e.g. Long Range Arena), where models are randomly initialized and trained to predict a target label from an input sequence. In this work, we show that random initialization leads to gross overestimation of the differences between architectures and that pretraining with standard denoising objectives, *using only the downstream task data*, leads to dramatic gains across multiple architectures and to very small gaps between Transformers and state space models (SSMs). In stark contrast to prior works, we find vanilla Transformers to match the performance of S4 on Long Range Arena when properly pretrained, and we improve the best reported results of SSMs on the PathX-256 task by 20 absolute points. Subsequently, we analyze the utility of previously-proposed structured parameterizations for SSMs and show they become mostly redundant in the presence of data-driven initialization obtained through pretraining. Our work shows that, when evaluating different architectures on supervised tasks, incorporation of data-driven priors via pretraining is essential for reliable performance estimation, and can be done efficiently.
Hanyu Zhou, Yi Chang, Haoyue Liu, YAN WENDING, Yuxing Duan, Zhiwei Shi, Luxin Yan
tl;dr: We propose a novel common appearance-boundary adaptation framework to learn an intermediate common space with discriminative feature representations for nighttime optical flow.
We investigate a challenging task of nighttime optical flow, which suffers from weakened texture and amplified noise. These degradations weaken discriminative visual features, thus causing invalid motion feature matching. Typically, existing methods employ domain adaptation to transfer knowledge from auxiliary domain to nighttime domain in either input visual space or output motion space. However, this direct adaptation is ineffective, since there exists a large domain gap due to the intrinsic heterogeneous nature of the feature representations between auxiliary and nighttime domains. To overcome this issue, we explore a common-latent space as the intermediate bridge to reinforce the feature alignment between auxiliary and nighttime domains. In this work, we exploit two auxiliary daytime and event domains, and propose a novel common appearance-boundary adaptation framework for nighttime optical flow. In appearance adaptation, we employ the intrinsic image decomposition to embed the auxiliary daytime image and the nighttime image into a reflectance-aligned common space. We discover that motion distributions of the two reflectance maps are very similar, benefiting us to consistently transfer motion appearance knowledge from daytime to nighttime domain. In boundary adaptation, we theoretically derive the motion correlation formula between nighttime image and accumulated events within a spatiotemporal gradient-aligned common space. We figure out that the correlation of the two spatiotemporal gradient maps shares significant discrepancy, benefitting us to contrastively transfer boundary knowledge from event to nighttime domain. Moreover, appearance adaptation and boundary adaptation are complementary to each other, since they could jointly transfer global motion and local boundary knowledge to the nighttime domain. Extensive experiments have been performed to verify the superiority of the proposed method.
Xiang Fu, Tian Xie, Andrew Scott Rosen, Tommi S. Jaakkola, Jake Allen Smith
tl;dr: We develop a generative model for metal organic frameworks using a coarse-grained diffusion approach to discover carbon capture materials and validate them through molecular simulations.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are of immense interest in applications such as gas storage and carbon capture due to their exceptional porosity and tunable chemistry. Their modular nature has enabled the use of template-based methods to generate hypothetical MOFs by combining molecular building blocks in accordance with known network topologies. However, the ability of these methods to identify top-performing MOFs is often hindered by the limited diversity of the resulting chemical space. In this work, we propose MOFDiff: a coarse-grained (CG) diffusion model that generates CG MOF structures through a denoising diffusion process over the coordinates and identities of the building blocks. The all-atom MOF structure is then determined through a novel assembly algorithm. As the diffusion model generates 3D MOF structures by predicting scores in E(3), we employ equivariant graph neural networks that respect the permutational and roto-translational symmetries. We comprehensively evaluate our model's capability to generate valid and novel MOF structures and its effectiveness in designing outstanding MOF materials for carbon capture applications with molecular simulations.
QIUHAO Zeng, Changjian Shui, Long-Kai Huang, Peng Liu, Xi Chen, Charles Ling, Boyu Wang
tl;dr: Solving Distribution Shift over Time modelling with Stochastic Differential Equations
Distribution shifts over time are common in real-world machine-learning applications. This scenario is formulated as Evolving Domain Generalization (EDG), where models aim to generalize well to unseen target domains in a time-varying system by learning and leveraging the underlying evolving pattern of the distribution shifts across domains. However, existing methods encounter challenges due to the limited number of timestamps (every domain corresponds to a timestamp) in EDG datasets, leading to difficulties in capturing evolving dynamics and risking overfitting to the sparse timestamps, which hampers their generalization and adaptability to new tasks. To address this limitation, we propose a novel approach SDE-EDG that collects the Infinitely Fined-Grid Evolving Trajectory (IFGET) of the data distribution with continuous-interpolated samples to bridge temporal gaps (intervals between two successive timestamps). Furthermore, by leveraging the inherent capacity of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) to capture continuous trajectories, we propose their use to align SDE-modeled trajectories with IFGET across domains, thus enabling the capture of evolving distribution trends. We evaluate our approach on several benchmark datasets and demonstrate that it can achieve superior performance compared to existing state-of-the-art methods.
Yunhe Zhang, Yan Sun, Jinyu Cai, Jicong Fan
Many well-known and effective anomaly detection methods assume that a reasonable decision boundary has a hypersphere shape, which however is difficult to obtain in practice and is not sufficiently compact, especially when the data are in high-dimensional spaces. In this paper, we first propose a novel deep anomaly detection model that improves the original hypersphere learning through an orthogonal projection layer, which ensures that the training data distribution is consistent with the hypersphere hypothesis, thereby increasing the true positive rate and decreasing the false negative rate. Moreover, we propose a bi-hypersphere compression method to obtain a hyperspherical shell that yields a more compact decision region than a hyperball, which is demonstrated theoretically and numerically. The proposed methods are not confined to common datasets such as image and tabular data, but are also extended to a more challenging but promising scenario, graph-level anomaly detection, which learns graph representation with maximum mutual information between the substructure and global structure features while exploring orthogonal single- or bi-hypersphere anomaly decision boundaries. The numerical and visualization results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of our methods in comparison to many baselines and state-of-the-art methods.
Lijun Yu, Jose Lezama, Nitesh Bharadwaj Gundavarapu, Luca Versari, Kihyuk Sohn, David Minnen, Yong Cheng, Agrim Gupta, Xiuye Gu, Alexander G Hauptmann, Boqing Gong, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Irfan Essa, David A Ross, Lu Jiang
tl;dr: With a good visual tokenizer, language model style transformer outperforms diffusion models on image and video generation.
While Large Language Models (LLMs) are the dominant models for generative tasks in language, they do not perform as well as diffusion models on image and video generation. To effectively use LLMs for visual generation, one crucial component is the visual tokenizer that maps pixel-space inputs to discrete tokens appropriate for LLM learning. In this paper, we introduce \modelname{}, a video tokenizer designed to generate concise and expressive tokens for both videos and images using a common token vocabulary. Equipped with this new tokenizer, we show that LLMs outperform diffusion models on standard image and video generation benchmarks including ImageNet and Kinetics. In addition, we demonstrate that our tokenizer surpasses the previously top-performing video tokenizer on two more tasks: (1) video compression comparable to the next-generation video codec (VCC) according to human evaluations, and (2) learning effective representations for action recognition tasks.
Ching Fang, Kim Stachenfeld
The ability to predict upcoming events has been hypothesized to comprise a key aspect of natural and machine cognition. This is supported by trends in deep reinforcement learning (RL), where self-supervised auxiliary objectives such as prediction are widely used to support representation learning and improve task performance. Here, we study the effects predictive auxiliary objectives have on representation learning across different modules of an RL system and how these mimic representational changes observed in the brain. We find that predictive objectives improve and stabilize learning particularly in resource-limited architectures, and we identify settings where longer predictive horizons better support representational transfer. Furthermore, we find that representational changes in this RL system bear a striking resemblance to changes in neural activity observed in the brain across various experiments. Specifically, we draw a connection between the auxiliary predictive model of the RL system and hippocampus, an area thought to learn a predictive model to support memory-guided behavior. We also connect the encoder network and the value learning network of the RL system to visual cortex and striatum in the brain, respectively. This work demonstrates how representation learning in deep RL systems can provide an interpretable framework for modeling multi-region interactions in the brain. The deep RL perspective taken here also suggests an additional role of the hippocampus in the brain-- that of an auxiliary learning system that benefits representation learning in other regions.
Tim Lebailly, Thomas Stegmüller, Behzad Bozorgtabar, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Tinne Tuytelaars
tl;dr: We introduce a cross-image object-level self-supervised learning method.
Leveraging nearest neighbor retrieval for self-supervised representation learning has proven beneficial with object-centric images. However, this approach faces limitations when applied to scene-centric datasets, where multiple objects within an image are only implicitly captured in the global representation. Such global bootstrapping can lead to undesirable entanglement of object representations. Furthermore, even object-centric datasets stand to benefit from a finer-grained bootstrapping approach. In response to these challenges, we introduce a novel $\textbf{Cr}$oss-$\textbf{I}$mage Object-Level $\textbf{Bo}$otstrapping method tailored to enhance dense visual representation learning. By employing object-level nearest neighbor bootstrapping throughout the training, CrIBo emerges as a notably strong and adequate candidate for in-context learning, leveraging nearest neighbor retrieval at test time. CrIBo shows state-of-the-art performance on the latter task while being highly competitive in more standard downstream segmentation tasks. Our code and pretrained models are publicly available at https://github.com/tileb1/CrIBo.
Chunsan Hong, ByungHee Cha, Tae-Hyun Oh
Recent conditional diffusion models have shown remarkable advancements and have been widely applied in fascinating real-world applications. However, samples generated by these models often do not strictly comply with user-provided conditions. Due to this, there have been few attempts to evaluate this alignment via pre-trained scoring models to select well-generated samples. Nonetheless, current studies are confined to the text-to-image domain and require large training datasets. This suggests that crafting alignment scores for various conditions will demand considerable resources in the future. In this context, we introduce a universal condition alignment score that leverages the conditional probability measurable through the diffusion process. Our technique operates across all conditions and requires no additional models beyond the diffusion model used for generation, effectively enabling self-rejection. Our experiments validate that our met- ric effectively applies in diverse conditional generations, such as text-to-image, {instruction, image}-to-image, edge-/scribble-to-image, and text-to-audio.
James Harrison, John Willes, Jasper Snoek
tl;dr: We introduce a deterministic variational formulation for training Bayesian last layer neural networks that improves accuracy and calibration for free.
We introduce a deterministic variational formulation for training Bayesian last layer neural networks. This yields a sampling-free, single-pass model and loss that effectively improves uncertainty estimation. Our variational Bayesian last layer (VBLL) can be trained and evaluated with only quadratic complexity in last layer width, and is thus (nearly) computationally free to add to standard architectures. We experimentally investigate VBLLs, and show that they improve predictive accuracy, calibration, and out of distribution detection over baselines across both regression and classification. Finally, we investigate combining VBLL layers with variational Bayesian feature learning, yielding a lower variance collapsed variational inference method for Bayesian neural networks.
Zhang-Wei Hong, Idan Shenfeld, Tsun-Hsuan Wang, Yung-Sung Chuang, Aldo Pareja, James R. Glass, Akash Srivastava, Pulkit Agrawal
tl;dr: We use curiosity-driven exploration to improve the diversity of the test cases generated for red teaming large language models.
Large language models (LLMs) hold great potential for many natural language applications but risk generating incorrect or toxic content. To probe when an LLM generates unwanted content, the current paradigm is to recruit a $\textit{red team}$ of human testers to design input prompts (i.e., test cases) that elicit undesirable responses from LLMs. However, relying solely on human testers is expensive and time-consuming. Recent works automate red teaming by training a separate red team LLM with reinforcement learning (RL) to generate test cases that maximize the chance of eliciting undesirable responses from the target LLM. However, current RL methods are only able to generate a small number of effective test cases resulting in a low coverage of the span of prompts that elicit undesirable responses from the target LLM. To overcome this limitation, we draw a connection between the problem of increasing the coverage of generated test cases and the well-studied approach of curiosity-driven exploration that optimizes for novelty. Our method of curiosity-driven red teaming (CRT) achieves greater coverage of test cases while mantaining or increasing their effectiveness compared to existing methods. Our method, CRT successfully provokes toxic responses from LLaMA2 model that has been heavily fine-tuned using human preferences to avoid toxic outputs. Code is available at https://github.com/Improbable-AI/curiosity_redteam.
Galen Andrew, Peter Kairouz, Sewoong Oh, Alina Oprea, Hugh Brendan McMahan, Vinith Menon Suriyakumar
tl;dr: Empirical estimation of privacy during training with minimal overhead, useful when tight analytical bounds are not known, e.g. when the adversary observes only the final model.
Privacy estimation techniques for differentially private (DP) algorithms are useful for comparing against analytical bounds, or to empirically measure privacy loss insettings where known analytical bounds are not tight. However, existing privacy auditing techniques usually make strong assumptions on the adversary (e.g., knowl-edge of intermediate model iterates or the training data distribution), are tailored to specific tasks, model architectures, or DP algorithm, and/or require retraining the model many times (typically on the order of thousands). These shortcomings make deploying such techniques at scale difficult in practice, especially in federatedsettings where model training can take days or weeks. In this work, we present a novel “one-shot” approach that can systematically address these challenges, al-lowing efficient auditing or estimation of the privacy loss of a model during the same, single training run used to fit model parameters, and without requiring anyaprioriknowledge about the model architecture, task, or DP algorithm. We show that our method provides provably correct estimates for the privacy loss under the Gaussian mechanism, and we demonstrate its performance on a well-established FL benchmark dataset under several adversarial threat models.
Xian Li, Ping Yu, Chunting Zhou, Timo Schick, Omer Levy, Luke Zettlemoyer, Jason E Weston, Mike Lewis
We present a scalable method to build a high quality instruction following language model by automatically labelling human-written text with corresponding instructions. Our approach, named instruction backtranslation, starts with a language model finetuned on a small amount of seed data, and a given web corpus. The seed model is used to construct training examples by generating instruction prompts for web documents (self-augmentation), and then selecting high quality examples from among these candidates (self-curation). This data is then used to finetune a stronger model. Finetuning LLaMa on two iterations of our approach yields a model that outperforms all other LLaMa-based models on the Alpaca leaderboard not relying on distillation data, demonstrating highly effective self-alignment.
Jiatong Shi, Hirofumi Inaguma, Xutai Ma, Ilia Kulikov, Anna Sun
tl;dr: We propose a multi-resolution framework for speech representation learning, which demonstrate significant gain in performance and efficiency.
Existing Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) models for speech typically process speech signals at a fixed resolution of 20 milliseconds. This approach overlooks the varying informational content present at different resolutions in speech signals. In contrast, this paper aims to incorporate multi-resolution information into speech self-supervised representation learning. We introduce a SSL model that leverages a hierarchical Transformer architecture, complemented by HuBERT-style masked prediction objectives, to process speech at multiple resolutions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed model not only achieves more efficient inference but also exhibits superior or comparable performance to the original HuBERT model over various tasks. Specifically, significant performance improvements over the original HuBERT have been observed in fine-tuning experiments on the LibriSpeech speech recognition benchmark as well as in evaluations using the Speech Universal PERformance Benchmark (SUPERB) and Multilingual SUPERB (ML-SUPERB).
Nathan C. Frey, Dan Berenberg, Karina Zadorozhny, Joseph Kleinhenz, Julien Lafrance-Vanasse, Isidro Hotzel, Yan Wu, Stephen Ra, Richard Bonneau, Kyunghyun Cho, Andreas Loukas, Vladimir Gligorijevic, Saeed Saremi
tl;dr: We resolve difficulties in training and sampling from a discrete generative model by learning a smoothed energy function, sampling from the smoothed data manifold, and projecting back to the true data manifold with one-step denoising.
We resolve difficulties in training and sampling from a discrete generative model by learning a smoothed energy function, sampling from the smoothed data manifold with Langevin Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), and projecting back to the true data manifold with one-step denoising. Our $\textit{Discrete Walk-Jump Sampling}$ formalism combines the contrastive divergence training of an energy-based model and improved sample quality of a score-based model, while simplifying training and sampling by requiring only a single noise level. We evaluate the robustness of our approach on generative modeling of antibody proteins and introduce the $\textit{distributional conformity score}$ to benchmark protein generative models. By optimizing and sampling from our models for the proposed distributional conformity score, 97-100\% of generated samples are successfully expressed and purified and 70\% of functional designs show equal or improved binding affinity compared to known functional antibodies on the first attempt in a single round of laboratory experiments. We also report the first demonstration of long-run fast-mixing MCMC chains where diverse antibody protein classes are visited in a single MCMC chain.
Seyedmorteza Sadat, Jakob Buhmann, Derek Bradley, Otmar Hilliges, Romann M. Weber
tl;dr: We propose a sampling method that increases the diversity of diffusion models without sacrificing image quality.
While conditional diffusion models are known to have good coverage of the data distribution, they still face limitations in output diversity, particularly when sampled with a high classifier-free guidance scale for optimal image quality or when trained on small datasets. We attribute this problem to the role of the conditioning signal in inference and offer an improved sampling strategy for diffusion models that can increase generation diversity, especially at high guidance scales, with minimal loss of sample quality. Our sampling strategy anneals the conditioning signal by adding scheduled, monotonically decreasing Gaussian noise to the conditioning vector during inference to balance diversity and condition alignment. Our Condition-Annealed Diffusion Sampler (CADS) can be used with any pretrained model and sampling algorithm, and we show that it boosts the diversity of diffusion models in various conditional generation tasks. Further, using an existing pretrained diffusion model, CADS achieves a new state-of-the-art FID of 1.70 and 2.31 for class-conditional ImageNet generation at 256$\times$256 and 512$\times$512 respectively.
Sebastian Pineda Arango, Fabio Ferreira, Arlind Kadra, Frank Hutter, Josif Grabocka
tl;dr: We learn to jointly and efficiently select pretrained models to finetune and their hyperparameters.
With the ever-increasing number of pretrained models, machine learning practitioners are continuously faced with which pretrained model to use, and how to finetune it for a new dataset. In this paper, we propose a methodology that jointly searches for the optimal pretrained model and the hyperparameters for finetuning it. Our method transfers knowledge about the performance of many pretrained models with multiple hyperparameter configurations on a series of datasets. To this aim, we evaluated over 20k hyperparameter configurations for finetuning 24 pretrained image classification models on 87 datasets to generate a large-scale meta-dataset. We meta-learn a gray-box performance predictor on the learning curves of this meta-dataset and use it for fast hyperparameter optimization on new datasets. We empirically demonstrate that our resulting approach can quickly select an accurate pretrained model for a new dataset together with its optimal hyperparameters.
Xiaoran Liu, Hang Yan, Chenxin An, Xipeng Qiu, Dahua Lin
tl;dr: In this work, we propose a unified framework from the prospective of period, to explain the mechanism of RoPE-based extrapolation by whether increasing or decreasing the rotary base.
The extrapolation capability of Large Language Models (LLMs) based on Rotary Position Embedding \citep{su2021roformer} is currently a topic of considerable interest. The mainstream approach to addressing extrapolation with LLMs involves modifying RoPE by replacing 10000, the rotary base of $\theta_n={10000}^{-2n/d}$ in the original RoPE, with a larger value and providing longer fine-tuning text. In this work, we first observe that fine-tuning a RoPE-based LLM with either a smaller or larger base in pre-training context length could significantly enhance its extrapolation performance. After that, we propose \textbf{\textit{Scaling Laws of RoPE-based Extrapolation}}, a unified framework from the periodic perspective, to describe the relationship between the extrapolation performance and base value as well as tuning context length. In this process, we also explain the origin of the RoPE-based extrapolation issue by \textbf{\textit{critical dimension for extrapolation}}. Besides these observations and analyses, we achieve extrapolation up to 1 million context length within only 16K training length on LLaMA2 7B and 13B \citep{touvron2023llama2}.
Ke Xue, Ren-Jian Wang, Pengyi Li, Dong Li, Jianye HAO, Chao Qian
Quality-Diversity (QD) algorithms, as a subset of evolutionary algorithms, have emerged as a powerful optimization paradigm with the aim of generating a set of high-quality and diverse solutions. Although QD has demonstrated competitive performance in reinforcement learning, its low sample efficiency remains a significant impediment for real-world applications. Recent research has primarily focused on augmenting sample efficiency by refining selection and variation operators of QD. However, one of the less considered yet crucial factors is the inherently large-scale issue of the QD optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Cooperative Coevolution QD (CCQD) framework, which decomposes a policy network naturally into two types of layers, corresponding to representation and decision respectively, and thus simplifies the problem significantly. The resulting two (representation and decision) subpopulations are coevolved cooperatively. CCQD can be implemented with different selection and variation operators. Experiments on several popular tasks within the QDAX suite demonstrate that an instantiation of CCQD achieves approximately a 200% improvement in sample efficiency.
Joey Bose, Tara Akhound-Sadegh, Kilian FATRAS, Guillaume Huguet, Jarrid Rector-Brooks, Cheng-Hao Liu, Andrei Cristian Nica, Maksym Korablyov, Michael M. Bronstein, Alexander Tong
tl;dr: A Flow Matching for the de novo design of protein backbones
The computational design of novel protein structures has the potential to impact numerous scientific disciplines greatly. Toward this goal, we introduce \foldflow, a series of novel generative models of increasing modeling power based on the flow-matching paradigm over $3\mathrm{D}$ rigid motions---i.e. the group $\mathrm{SE}(3)$---enabling accurate modeling of protein backbones. We first introduce FoldFlow-Base, a simulation-free approach to learning deterministic continuous-time dynamics and matching invariant target distributions on $\mathrm{SE}(3)$. We next accelerate training by incorporating Riemannian optimal transport to create FoldFlow-OT, leading to the construction of both more simple and stable flows. Finally, we design FoldFlow-SFM, coupling both Riemannian OT and simulation-free training to learn stochastic continuous-time dynamics over $\mathrm{SE}(3)$. Our family of FoldFlow, generative models offers several key advantages over previous approaches to the generative modeling of proteins: they are more stable and faster to train than diffusion-based approaches, and our models enjoy the ability to map any invariant source distribution to any invariant target distribution over $\mathrm{SE}(3)$. Empirically, we validate our FoldFlow, models on protein backbone generation of up to $300$ amino acids leading to high-quality designable, diverse, and novel samples.
Ricky T. Q. Chen, Yaron Lipman
tl;dr: We derive sufficient conditions for Conditional Flow Matching on general manifolds, with significant algorithmic improvements to diffusion-based approaches even on simple manifolds, and the first to tackle more general manifolds.
We propose Riemannian Flow Matching (RFM), a simple yet powerful framework for training continuous normalizing flows on manifolds. Existing methods for generative modeling on manifolds either require expensive simulation, are inherently unable to scale to high dimensions, or use approximations for limiting quantities that result in biased training objectives. Riemannian Flow Matching bypasses these limitations and offers several advantages over previous approaches: it is simulation-free on simple geometries, does not require divergence computation, and computes its target vector field in closed-form. The key ingredient behind RFM is the construction of a relatively simple premetric for defining target vector fields, which encompasses the existing Euclidean case. To extend to general geometries, we rely on the use of spectral decompositions to efficiently compute premetrics on the fly. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on real-world non-Euclidean datasets, and we demonstrate tractable training on general geometries, including triangular meshes with highly non-trivial curvature and boundaries.
Shangbin Feng, Weijia Shi, Yuyang Bai, Vidhisha Balachandran, Tianxing He, Yulia Tsvetkov
By design, large language models (LLMs) are static general-purpose models, expensive to retrain or update frequently. As they are increasingly adopted for knowledge-intensive tasks, it becomes evident that these design choices lead to failures to generate factual, relevant, and up-to-date knowledge. To this end, we propose Knowledge Card, a modular framework to plug in new factual and relevant knowledge into general-purpose LLMs. We first introduce knowledge cards---specialized language models trained on corpora from specific domains and sources. Knowledge cards serve as parametric repositories that are selected at inference time to generate background knowledge for the base LLM. We then propose three content selectors to dynamically select and retain information in documents generated by knowledge cards, specifically controlling for relevance, brevity, and factuality of outputs. Finally, we propose two complementary integration approaches to augment the base LLM with the (relevant, factual) knowledge curated from the specialized LMs. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that Knowledge Card achieves state-of-the-art performance on six benchmark datasets. Ultimately, Knowledge Card framework enables dynamic synthesis and updates of knowledge from diverse domains. Its modularity will ensure that relevant knowledge can be continuously updated through the collective efforts of the research community.
Sorawit Saengkyongam, Elan Rosenfeld, Pradeep Kumar Ravikumar, Niklas Pfister, Jonas Peters
The premise of identifiable and causal representation learning is to improve the current representation learning paradigm in terms of generalizability or robustness. Despite recent progress in questions of identifiability, more theoretical results demonstrating concrete advantages of these methods for downstream tasks are needed. In this paper, we consider the task of intervention extrapolation: predicting how interventions affect an outcome, even when those interventions are not observed at training time, and show that identifiable representations can provide an effective solution to this task even if the interventions affect the outcome non-linearly. Our setup includes an outcome variable $Y$, observed features $X$, which are generated as a non-linear transformation of latent features $Z$, and exogenous action variables $A$, which influence $Z$. The objective of intervention extrapolation is then to predict how interventions on $A$ that lie outside the training support of $A$ affect $Y$. Here, extrapolation becomes possible if the effect of $A$ on $Z$ is linear and the residual when regressing Z on A has full support. As $Z$ is latent, we combine the task of intervention extrapolation with identifiable representation learning, which we call $\texttt{Rep4Ex}$: we aim to map the observed features $X$ into a subspace that allows for non-linear extrapolation in $A$. We show that the hidden representation is identifiable up to an affine transformation in $Z$-space, which, we prove, is sufficient for intervention extrapolation. The identifiability is characterized by a novel constraint describing the linearity assumption of $A$ on $Z$. Based on this insight, we propose a flexible method that enforces the linear invariance constraint and can be combined with any type of autoencoder. We validate our theoretical findings through a series of synthetic experiments and show that our approach can indeed succeed in predicting the effects of unseen interventions.
Pablo Pernias, Dominic Rampas, Mats Leon Richter, Christopher Pal, Marc Aubreville
tl;dr: We propose an efficient text-to-image model that only requires 1/8th of Stable Diffusion 2.1's compute budget for training and has comparable, if not better image quality with less than half the inference time.
We introduce Würstchen, a novel architecture for text-to-image synthesis that combines competitive performance with unprecedented cost-effectiveness for large-scale text-to-image diffusion models. A key contribution of our work is to develop a latent diffusion technique in which we learn a detailed but extremely compact semantic image representation used to guide the diffusion process. This highly compressed representation of an image provides much more detailed guidance compared to latent representations of language and this significantly reduces the computational requirements to achieve state-of-the-art results. Our approach also improves the quality of text-conditioned image generation based on our user preference study. The training requirements of our approach consists of 24,602 A100-GPU hours - compared to Stable Diffusion 2.1's 200,000 GPU hours. Our approach also requires less training data to achieve these results. Furthermore, our compact latent representations allows us to perform inference over twice as fast, slashing the usual costs and carbon footprint of a state-of-the-art (SOTA) diffusion model significantly, without compromising the end performance. In a broader comparison against SOTA models our approach is substantially more efficient and compares favourably in terms of image quality. We believe that this work motivates more emphasis on the prioritization of both performance and computational accessibility.
Mitchell Wortsman, Peter J Liu, Lechao Xiao, Katie E Everett, Alexander A Alemi, Ben Adlam, John D Co-Reyes, Izzeddin Gur, Abhishek Kumar, Roman Novak, Jeffrey Pennington, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Kelvin Xu, Jaehoon Lee, Justin Gilmer, Simon Kornblith
tl;dr: We seek ways to reproduce, study and predict training instability with smaller models.
Teams that have trained large Transformer-based models have reported training instabilities at large scale that did not appear when training with the same hyperparameters at smaller scales. Although the causes of such instabilities are of scientific interest, the amount of resources required to reproduce them has made investigation difficult. In this work, we seek ways to reproduce and study training instability at smaller scales. First, we focus on two sources of training instability described in previous work: the growth of logits in attention layers (Dehghani et al., 2023) and divergence of the output logits from the log probabilities (Chowdhery et al., 2022). By measuring the relationship between learning rate and loss across scales, we show that these instabilities also appear in small models when training at high learning rates, and that mitigations previously employed at large scales are equally effective in this regime. This prompts us to investigate the extent to which other known optimizer and model interventions influence the sensitivity of the final loss to changes in the learning rate. To this end, we study methods such as warm-up, weight decay, and the MuParam (Yang et al., 2022), and combine techniques to train small models that achieve similar losses across orders of magnitude of learning rate variation. Finally, to conclude our exploration we study two cases where instabilities can be predicted before they emerge by examining the scaling behavior of model characteristics such as activation and gradient norms.
Vishaal Udandarao, Max F Burg, Samuel Albanie, Matthias Bethge
tl;dr: We introduce "Visual Data-Type Identification", a novel task for identifying visual distortions or perceptual changes to images, we find poor performance of VLMs across the board, and scaling models up does not improve performance significantly.
Recent advances in the development of vision-language models (VLMs) are yielding remarkable success in recognizing visual semantic content, including impressive instances of compositional image understanding. Here, we introduce the novel task of Visual Data-Type Identification, a basic perceptual skill with implications for data curation (e.g., noisy data-removal from large datasets, domains pecific retrieval) and autonomous vision (e.g., distinguishing changing weather conditions from camera lens staining). We develop two datasets consisting of animal images altered across a diverse set of 27 visual data-types, spanning four broad categories. An extensive zero-shot evaluation of 39 VLMs, ranging from 100M to 80B parameters, shows a nuanced performance landscape. While VLMs are reasonably good at identifying certain stylistic data-types, such as cartoons and sketches, they struggle with simpler data-types arising from basic manipulations like image rotations or additive noise. Our findings reveal that (i) model scaling alone yields marginal gains for contrastively-trained models like CLIP, and (ii) there is a pronounced drop in performance for the largest auto-regressively trained VLMs like OpenFlamingo. This finding points to a blind spot in current frontier VLMs: they excel in recognizing semantic content but fail to acquire an understanding of visual data-types through scaling. By analyzing the pre-training distributions of these models and incorporating data-type information into the captions during fine-tuning, we achieve a significant enhancement in performance. By exploring this previously uncharted task, we aim to set the stage for further advancing VLMs to equip them with visual data-type understanding.
Tsung-Wei Ke, Sangwoo Mo, Stella X. Yu
tl;dr: We propose a learning framework that integrates segmentation in the loop for recognition, enabling concurrent hierarchical segmentation and recognition using a single model.
Image segmentation and recognition occur simultaneously, with recognition relying on the underlying segmentation to form a continuous visual grouping hierarchy. For example, the same object can be parsed into different part-to-whole structures, resulting in varying recognitions. Despite this, most prior works treated segmentation and recognition as separate tasks. In this paper, we aim to devise a learning framework that involves segmentation in the recognition process, utilizing hierarchical segmentation for recognition, which is learned by recognition. Specifically, we propose CAST, which realizes this concept through designs inspired by vision transformers, enabling concurrent segmentation and recognition with a single model. The core idea of CAST is to employ adaptive segment tokens that group the finest pixels into coarser segments, using the latest embedding to represent the entire image for recognition. Trained solely on image recognition objectives, CAST automatically discovers the hierarchy of segments. Our experiments demonstrate that CAST provides consistent hierarchical segmentation and recognition, which is impossible with state-of-the-art segmentation methods such as SAM. Additionally, CAST offers several advantages over the standard ViT, including improved semantic segmentation, computational efficiency, and object-centric attention.
Suyu Ge, Yunan Zhang, Liyuan Liu, Minjia Zhang, Jiawei Han, Jianfeng Gao
tl;dr: We introduce adaptive KV cache compression, a plug-and-play method that reduces the memory footprint of generative inference for Large Language Models (LLMs) and accelerates its generation throughput.
In this study, we introduce adaptive KV cache compression, a plug-and-play method that reduces the memory footprint of generative inference for Large Language Models (LLMs). Different from the conventional KV cache that retains key and value vectors for all context tokens, we conduct targeted profiling to discern the intrinsic structure of attention modules. Based on the recognized structure, we then construct the KV cache in an adaptive manner: evicting long-range contexts on attention heads emphasizing local contexts, discarding non-special tokens on attention heads centered on special tokens, and only employing the standard KV cache for attention heads that broadly attend to all tokens. Moreover, with the lightweight attention profiling used to guide the construction of the adaptive KV cache, FastGen can be deployed without resource-intensive fine-tuning or re-training. In our experiments across various asks, FastGen demonstrates substantial reduction on GPU memory consumption with negligible generation quality loss. We will release our code and the compatible CUDA kernel for reproducibility.
zaishuo xia, Han Yang, Binghui Wang, Jinyuan Jia
Graph classification, which aims to predict a label for a graph, has many real-world applications such as malware detection, fraud detection, and healthcare. However, many studies show an attacker could carefully perturb the structure and/or node features in a graph such that a graph classifier misclassifies the perturbed graph. Such vulnerability impedes the deployment of graph classification in security/safety-critical applications. Existing empirical defenses lack formal robustness guarantees and could be broken by adaptive or unknown attacks. Existing provable defenses have the following limitations: 1) they achieve sub-optimal robustness guarantees for graph structure perturbation, 2) they cannot provide robustness guarantees for arbitrarily node feature perturbations, 3) their robustness guarantees are probabilistic, meaning they could be incorrect with a non-zero probability, and 4) they incur large computation costs. We aim to address those limitations in this work. We propose GraphGuard, a certified defense against both graph structure and node feature perturbations for graph classification. Our GraphGuard provably predicts the same label for a graph when the number of perturbed edges and the number of nodes with perturbed features are bounded. Our results on 8 benchmark datasets show GraphGuard outperforms three state-of-the-art methods.
Xinmeng Huang, Ping Li, Xiaoyun Li
tl;dr: We propose SCALLION and SCAFCOM that are built on a new formulation of stochastic controlled averaging and reach the SOTA performance among compressed FL algorithms.
Communication compression has gained great interest in Federated Learning (FL) for the potential of alleviating its communication overhead. However, com- munication compression brings forth new challenges in FL due to the interplay of compression-incurred information distortion and inherent characteristics of FL such as partial participation and data heterogeneity. Despite the recent develop- ment, the existing approaches either cannot accommodate arbitrary data hetero- geneity or partial participation, or require stringent conditions on compression. In this paper, we revisit the seminal stochastic controlled averaging method by proposing an equivalent but more efficient/simplified formulation with halved up- link communication costs, building upon which we propose two compressed FL algorithms, SCALLION and SCAFCOM, to support unbiased and biased com- pression, respectively. Both the proposed methods outperform the existing com- pressed FL methods in terms of communication and computation complexities. Moreover, SCALLION and SCAFCOM attain fast convergence rates under ar- bitrary data heterogeneity and without any additional assumptions on compression errors. Experiments show that SCALLION and SCAFCOM outperform recent compressed FL methods under the same communication budget.
Josh Alman, Zhao Song
In the classical transformer attention scheme, we are given three $n \times d$ size matrices $Q, K, V$ (the query, key, and value tokens), and the goal is to compute a new $n \times d$ size matrix $D^{-1} \exp(QK^\top) V$ where $D = \mathrm{diag}( \exp(QK^\top) {\bf 1}_n )$. Here, $\exp()$ is applied entry-wise and ${\bf 1}_n$ denotes a length-$n$ vector whose entries are all ones. Intuitively, attention computation captures pairwise information between words in a sentence, but not higher-order information. Indeed, recent work \cite{sht23} has shown that attention units cannot solve simple problems about detecting triples of connected words. In this work, we study a generalization of attention which captures triple-wise correlations. The generalization is based on computations involving tensors defined by tuples of words. More formally, given five $n \times d$ size matrices $Q, K_1, K_2, V_1$ and $V_2$ (generalized query, key, and value tokens), our new goal is to compute an $n \times d$ size matrix $D^{-1} \exp( Q ( K_1 \oslash K_2)^\top ) (V_1 \oslash V_2) $ where $D = \mathrm{diag}( \exp( Q ( K_1 \oslash K_2)^\top ) {\bf 1}_{n^2} )$ and $K_1 \oslash K_2 \in \mathbb{R}^{n^2 \times d}$ denotes the column-wise Kronecker product of $K_1$ and $K_2$. This generalization is indeed able to solve problems about detecting triple-wise connections that were shown to be impossible for transformers. The potential downside of this generalization is that it appears as though computations are even more difficult, since the straightforward algorithm requires cubic time in $n$. However, we show that in the bounded-entry setting (which arises in practice, and which is well-studied in both theory and practice), there is actually a near-linear time algorithm. More precisely, we show that bounded entries are both necessary and sufficient for quickly performing generalized computations: $\bullet$ On the positive side, if all entries of the input matrices are bounded above by $o(\sqrt[3]{\log n})$ then we show how to approximate the ``tensor-type'' attention matrix in $n^{1+o(1)}$ time. $\bullet$ On the negative side, we show that if the entries of the input matrices may be as large as $\Omega(\sqrt[3]{\log n})$, then there is no algorithm that runs faster than $n^{3-o(1)}$ (assuming the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis from fine-grained complexity theory). We also show that our construction, algorithms, and lower bounds naturally generalize to higher-order tensors and correlations. Interestingly, the higher the order of the tensors, the lower the bound on the entries needs to be for an efficient algorithm. Our results thus yield a natural tradeoff between the boundedness of the entries, and order of the tensor one may use for more expressive, efficient attention computation. Our constructions make use of a novel connection with a higher-order variant on the kernel density estimation problem. They combine a number of technical tools, including the polynomial method, algebraic geometry codes, and multiparty Merlin-Arthur communication protocols.
Yinghao Xu, Hao Tan, Fujun Luan, Sai Bi, Peng Wang, Jiahao Li, Zifan Shi, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Gordon Wetzstein, Zexiang Xu, Kai Zhang
We propose DMV3D, a novel 3D generation approach that uses a transformer-based 3D large reconstruction model to denoise multi-view diffusion. Our reconstruction model incorporates a triplane NeRF representation and, functioning as a denoiser, can denoise noisy multi-view images via 3D NeRF reconstruction and rendering, achieving single-stage 3D generation in the 2D diffusion denoising process. We train DMV3D on large-scale multi-view image datasets of extremely diverse objects using only image reconstruction losses, without accessing 3D assets. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results for the single-image reconstruction problem where probabilistic modeling of unseen object parts is required for generating diverse reconstructions with sharp textures. We also show high-quality text-to-3D generation results outperforming previous 3D diffusion models. Our project website is at: https://dmv3d.github.io/.
Ismail Yunus Akhalwaya, Shashanka Ubaru, Kenneth L. Clarkson, Mark S. Squillante, Vishnu Jejjala, Yang-Hui He, Kugendran Naidoo, Vasileios Kalantzis, Lior Horesh
Topological data analysis (TDA) is a powerful technique for extracting complex and valuable shape-related summaries of high-dimensional data. However, the computational demands of classical algorithms for computing TDA are exorbitant, and quickly become impractical for high-order characteristics. Quantum computers offer the potential of achieving significant speedup for certain computational problems. Indeed, TDA has been purported to be one such problem, yet, quantum computing algorithms proposed for the problem, such as the original Quantum TDA (QTDA) formulation by Lloyd, Garnerone and Zanardi, require fault-tolerance qualifications that are currently unavailable. In this study, we present NISQ-TDA, a fully implemented end-to-end quantum machine learning algorithm needing only a short circuit-depth, that is applicable to high-dimensional classical data, and with provable asymptotic speedup for certain classes of problems. The algorithm neither suffers from the data-loading problem nor does it need to store the input data on the quantum computer explicitly. The algorithm was successfully executed on quantum computing devices, as well as on noisy quantum simulators, applied to small datasets. Preliminary empirical results suggest that the algorithm is robust to noise.
Xuelun Shen, zhipeng cai, Wei Yin, Matthias Müller, Zijun Li, Kaixuan Wang, Xiaozhi Chen, Cheng Wang
tl;dr: We propose the first framework to learn a single generalizable image matching model from internet videos.
Image matching is a fundamental computer vision problem. While learning-based methods achieve state-of-the-art performance on existing benchmarks, they generalize poorly to in-the-wild images. Such methods typically need to train separate models for different scene types (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor) and are impractical when the scene type is unknown in advance. One of the underlying problems is the limited scalability of existing data construction pipelines, which limits the diversity of standard image matching datasets. To address this problem, we propose GIM, a self-training framework for learning a single generalizable model based on any image matching architecture using internet videos, an abundant and diverse data source. Given an architecture, GIM first trains it on standard domain-specific datasets and then combines it with complementary matching methods to create dense labels on nearby frames of novel videos. These labels are filtered by robust fitting, and then enhanced by propagating them to distant frames. The final model is trained on propagated data with strong augmentations. Not relying on complex 3D reconstruction makes GIM much more efficient and less likely to fail than standard SfM-and-MVS based frameworks. We also propose ZEB, the first zero-shot evaluation benchmark for image matching. By mixing data from diverse domains, ZEB can thoroughly assess the cross-domain generalization performance of different methods. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of GIM. Applying GIM consistently improves the zero-shot performance of 3 state-of-the-art image matching architectures as the number of downloaded videos increases (Fig. 1 (a)); with 50 hours of YouTube videos, the relative zero-shot performance improves by 8.4% − 18.1%. GIM also enables generalization to extreme cross-domain data such as Bird Eye View (BEV) images of projected 3D point clouds (Fig. 1 (c)). More importantly, our single zero-shot model consistently outperforms domain-specific baselines when evaluated on downstream tasks inherent to their respective domains. The code will be released upon acceptance.
Marcel Binz, Eric Schulz
tl;dr: We finetune a large language model on data from psychological experiments and find that doing so produces models that are more aligned with human decision-making.
Large language models are powerful systems that excel at many tasks, ranging from translation to mathematical reasoning. Yet, at the same time, these models often show unhuman-like characteristics. In the present paper, we address this gap and ask whether large language models can be turned into cognitive models. We find that -- after finetuning them on data from psychological experiments -- these models offer accurate representations of human behavior, even outperforming traditional cognitive models in two decision-making domains. In addition, we show that their representations contain the information necessary to model behavior on the level of individual subjects. Finally, we demonstrate that finetuning on multiple tasks enables large language models to predict human behavior in a previously unseen task. Taken together, these results suggest that large, pre-trained models can be adapted to become models of human cognition, which opens up future research directions toward building more general cognitive models.
Jisu Nam, Gyuseong Lee, Sunwoo Kim, Hyeonsu Kim, Hyoungwon Cho, Seyeon Kim, Seungryong Kim
The objective for establishing dense correspondence between paired images consists of two terms: a data term and a prior term. While conventional techniques focused on defining hand-designed prior terms, which are difficult to formulate, recent approaches have focused on learning the data term with deep neural networks without explicitly modeling the prior, assuming that the model itself has the capacity to learn an optimal prior from a large-scale dataset. The performance improvement was obvious, however, they often fail to address inherent ambiguities of matching, such as textureless regions, repetitive patterns, large displacements, or noises. To address this, we propose DiffMatch, a novel conditional diffusion-based framework designed to explicitly model both the data and prior terms for dense matching. This is accomplished by leveraging a conditional denoising diffusion model that explicitly takes matching cost and injects the prior within generative process. However, limited resolution of the diffusion model is a major hindrance. We address this with a cascaded pipeline, starting with a low-resolution model, followed by a super-resolution model that successively upsamples and incorporates finer details to the matching field. Our experimental results demonstrate significant performance improvements of our method over existing approaches, and the ablation studies validate our design choices along with the effectiveness of each component. The code and pretrained weights will be available.
Mikhail Khodak, Edmond Chow, Maria Florina Balcan, Ameet Talwalkar
tl;dr: We show provable guarantees for learning the relaxation parameter of linear system solvers.
Solving a linear system ${\bf Ax}={\bf b}$ is a fundamental scientific computing primitive, and numerous solvers and preconditioners have been developed. These come with parameters whose optimal values depend on the system being solved but are often impossible or too expensive to identify; thus in practice sub-optimal heuristics are used instead. We consider the common setting in which many related linear systems are solved, e.g. during a single numerical simulation. In this scenario, can we sequentially choose parameters that attain a near-optimal overall number of iterations, without extra matrix computations? We answer in the affirmative for Successive Over-Relaxation~(SOR), a standard solver whose parameter $\omega$ has a strong impact on its runtime. For this method, we prove that a bandit algorithm—using only the number of iterations as feedback—can select parameters for a sequence of instances such that the overall cost is almost as good as that the best fixed $\omega$ would have obtained. Furthermore, when given additional structural information, we show that a {\em contextual} bandit method approaches the performance of the {\em instance-optimal} policy, which selects the best $\omega$ for each instance. Our work provides the first learning-theoretic treatment of high-precision linear system solvers and the first end-to-end guarantees for data-driven scientific computing, demonstrating theoretically the potential to speed up numerical methods using well-understood learning algorithms.
Yian Wang, Juntian Zheng, Zhehuan Chen, Zhou Xian, Gu Zhang, Chao Liu, Chuang Gan
In this work, we aim to teach robots to manipulate various thin-shell materials. Prior works studying thin-shell object manipulation mostly rely on heuristic policies or learn policies from real-world video demonstrations, and only focus on limited material types and tasks (e.g., cloth unfolding). However, these approaches face significant challenges when extended to a wider variety of thin-shell materials and a diverse range of tasks. On the other hand, while virtual simulations are shown to be effective in diverse robot skill learning and evaluation, prior thin-shell simulation environments only support a subset of thin-shell materials, which also limits their supported range of tasks. To fill in this gap, we introduce ThinShellLab - a fully differentiable simulation platform tailored for robotic interactions with diverse thin-shell materials possessing varying material properties, enabling flexible thin-shell manipulation skill learning and evaluation. Building on top of our developed simulation engine, we design a diverse set of manipulation tasks centered around different thin-shell objects. Our experiments suggest that manipulating thin-shell objects presents several unique challenges: 1) thin-shell manipulation relies heavily on frictional forces due to the objects' co-dimensional nature, 2) the materials being manipulated are highly sensitive to minimal variations in interaction actions, and 3) the constant and frequent alteration in contact pairs makes trajectory optimization methods susceptible to local optima, and neither standard reinforcement learning algorithms nor trajectory optimization methods (either gradient-based or gradient-free) are able to solve the tasks alone. To overcome these challenges, we present an optimization scheme that couples sampling-based trajectory optimization and gradient-based optimization, boosting both learning efficiency and converged performance across various proposed tasks. In addition, the differentiable nature of our platform facilitates a smooth sim-to-real transition. By tuning simulation parameters with a minimal set of real-world data, we demonstrate successful deployment of the learned skills to real-robot settings. ThinShellLab will be publicly available. Video demonstration and more information can be found on the project website https://thinshelllab.github.io.
Mao Hong, Zhengling Qi, Yanxun Xu
tl;dr: We propose a policy gradient method for Confounded POMDPs with theoretical guarantees.
In this paper, we propose a policy gradient method for confounded partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with continuous state and observation spaces in the offline setting. We first establish a novel identification result to non-parametrically estimate any history-dependent policy gradient under POMDPs using the offline data. The identification enables us to solve a sequence of conditional moment restrictions and adopt the min-max learning procedure with general function approximation for estimating the policy gradient. We then provide a finite-sample non-asymptotic bound for estimating the gradient uniformly over a pre-specified policy class in terms of the sample size, length of horizon, concentratability coefficient and the measure of ill-posedness in solving the conditional moment restrictions. Lastly, by deploying the proposed gradient estimation in the gradient ascent algorithm, we show the global convergence of the proposed algorithm in finding the history-dependent optimal policy under some technical conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work studying the policy gradient method for POMDPs under the offline setting.
Mouxing Yang, Yunfan Li, Changqing Zhang, Peng Hu, Xi Peng
tl;dr: Reveal a new problem named reliability bias for multi-modal TTA, and propose a new method to achieve reliable fusion and robust adaption.
Test-time adaptation (TTA) has emerged as a new paradigm for reconciling distribution shifts across domains without accessing source data. However, existing TTA methods mainly concentrate on uni-modal tasks, overlooking the complexity in multi-modal scenarios. In this paper, we delve into the multi-modal test-time adaptation and reveal a new challenge named reliability bias. Different from the definition of traditional distribution shifts, reliability bias refers to the information discrepancies across different modalities derived from intra-modal distribution shifts. To solve the challenge, we propose a novel method, dubbed REliable fusion and robust ADaptation (READ). On the one hand, unlike the existing TTA paradigm that mainly repurposes the normalization layers, READ employs a new paradigm that modulates the attention between modalities in a self-adaptive way, supporting reliable fusion against reliability bias. On the other hand, READ adopts a novel objective function for robust multi-modal adaptation, where the contributions of confident predictions could be amplified and the negative impacts of noisy predictions could be mitigated. Moreover, we introduce two new benchmarks to facilitate comprehensive evaluations of multi-modal TTA under reliability bias. Extensive experiments on the benchmarks verify the effectiveness of our method against multi-modal reliability bias. The code and benchmarks are available on https://github.com/XLearning-SCU/2024-ICLR-READ.
Ronak Mehta, Vincent Roulet, Krishna Pillutla, Zaid Harchaoui
tl;dr: We propose a linearly convergent stochastic (a.k.a. incremental) algorithm that optimizes spectral risk measures, which are distributionally robust objectives that include the superquantile.
We consider the distributionally robust (DR) optimization problem with spectral risk-based uncertainty set and $f$-divergence penalty. This formulation includes common risk-sensitive learning objectives such as regularized condition value-at-risk (CVaR) and average top-$k$ loss. We present Prospect, a stochastic gradient-based algorithm that only requires tuning a single learning rate hyperparameter, and prove that it enjoys linear convergence for smooth regularized losses. This contrasts with previous algorithms that either require tuning multiple hyperparameters or potentially fail to converge due to biased gradient estimates or inadequate regularization. Empirically, we show that Prospect can converge 2-3x faster than baselines such as SGD and stochastic saddle-point methods on distribution shift and fairness benchmarks spanning tabular, vision, and language domains.
Ian Gemp, Luke Marris, Georgios Piliouras
tl;dr: We propose the first stochastic NE loss for normal-form games.
We propose the first loss function for approximate Nash equilibria of normal-form games that is amenable to unbiased Monte Carlo estimation. This construction allows us to deploy standard non-convex stochastic optimization techniques for approximating Nash equilibria, resulting in novel algorithms with provable guarantees. We complement our theoretical analysis with experiments demonstrating that stochastic gradient descent can outperform previous state-of-the-art approaches.
Maksim Velikanov, Maxim Panov, Dmitry Yarotsky
The asymptotically precise estimation of the generalization of kernel methods has recently received attention due to the parallels between neural networks and their associated kernels. However, prior works derive such estimates for training by kernel ridge regression (KRR), whereas neural networks are typically trained with gradient descent (GD). In the present work, we consider the training of kernels with a family of \emph{spectral algorithms} specified by profile $h(\lambda)$, and including KRR and GD as special cases. Then, we derive the generalization error as a functional of learning profile $h(\lambda)$ for two data models: high-dimensional Gaussian and low-dimensional translation-invariant model. Under power-law assumptions on the spectrum of the kernel and target, we use our framework to (i) give full loss asymptotics for both noisy and noiseless observations (ii) show that the loss localizes on certain spectral scales, giving a new perspective on the KRR saturation phenomenon (iii) conjecture, and demonstrate for the considered data models, the universality of the loss w.r.t. non-spectral details of the problem, but only in case of noisy observation.
Xin Zheng, Dongjin Song, Qingsong Wen, Bo Du, Shirui Pan
Evaluating the performance of a well-trained GNN model on real-world graphs is a pivotal step for reliable GNN online deployment and serving. Due to a lack of test node labels and unknown potential training-test graph data distribution shifts, conventional model evaluation encounters limitations in calculating performance metrics (e.g., test error) and measuring graph data-level discrepancies, particularly when the training graph used for developing GNNs remains unobserved during test time. In this paper, we study a new research problem, online GNN evaluation, which aims to provide valuable insights into the well-trained GNNs's ability to effectively generalize to real-world unlabeled graphs under the test-time graph distribution shifts. Concretely, we develop an effective learning behavior discrepancy score, dubbed LeBeD, to estimate the test-time generalization errors of well-trained GNN models. Through a novel GNN re-training strategy with a parameter-free optimality criterion, the proposed LeBeD comprehensively integrates learning behavior discrepancies from both node prediction and structure reconstruction perspectives. This enables the effective evaluation of the well-trained GNNs' ability to capture test node semantics and structural representations, making it an expressive metric for estimating the generalization error in online GNN evaluation. Extensive experiments on real-world test graphs under diverse graph distribution shifts could verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, revealing its strong correlation with ground-truth test errors on various well-trained GNN models.
Yehui Tang, Hao Xiong, Nianzu Yang, Tailong Xiao, Junchi Yan
Estimating the properties of quantum systems such as quantum phase has been critical in addressing the essential quantum many-body problems in physics and chemistry. Deep learning models have been recently introduced to property estimation, surpassing conventional statistical approaches. However, these methods are tailored to the specific task and quantum data at hand. It remains an open and attractive question for devising a more universal task-agnostic pretraining model for quantum property estimation. In this paper, we propose LLM4QPE, a large language model style quantum task-agnostic pretraining and finetuning paradigm that 1) performs unsupervised pretraining on diverse quantum systems with different physical conditions; 2) uses the pretrained model for supervised finetuning and delivers high performance with limited training data, on downstream tasks. It mitigates the cost for quantum data collection and speeds up convergence. Extensive experiments show the promising efficacy of LLM4QPE in various tasks including classifying quantum phases of matter on Rydberg atom model and predicting two-body correlation function on anisotropic Heisenberg model.
Yuchen Hu, CHEN CHEN, Chao-Han Huck Yang, Ruizhe Li, Chao Zhang, Pin-Yu Chen, Ensiong Chng
Recent advances in large language models (LLMs) have promoted generative error correction (GER) for automatic speech recognition (ASR), which leverages the rich linguistic knowledge and powerful reasoning ability of LLMs to improve recognition results. The latest work proposes a GER benchmark with "HyPoradise" dataset to learn the mapping from ASR N-best hypotheses to ground-truth transcription by efficient LLM finetuning, which shows great effectiveness but lacks specificity on noise-robust ASR. In this work, we extend the benchmark to noisy conditions and investigate if we can teach LLMs to perform denoising for GER just like what robust ASR do, where one solution is introducing noise information as a conditioner into LLM. However, directly incorporating noise embeddings from audio encoder could harm the LLM tuning due to cross-modality gap. To this end, we propose to extract a language-space noise embedding from the N-best list to represent the noise conditions of source speech, which can promote the denoising process in GER. Furthermore, in order to enhance its representation ability of audio noise, we design a knowledge distillation (KD) approach via mutual information estimation to distill the real noise information in audio embeddings to our language embedding. Experiments on various latest LLMs demonstrate our approach achieves a new breakthrough with up to 53.9% correction improvement in terms of word error rate while with limited training data. Analysis shows that our language-space noise embedding can well represent the noise conditions of source speech, under which off-the-shelf LLMs show strong ability of language-space denoising.
Shuo He, Chaojie Wang, Guowu Yang, Lei Feng
tl;dr: We pioneer a new task called candidate label set pruning (CLSP) for the problem of deep partial label learning, and propose a new CLSP algorithm.
Partial-label learning (PLL) allows each training example to be equipped with a set of candidate labels. Existing deep PLL research focuses on a \emph{learning-centric} perspective to design various training strategies for label disambiguation i.e., identifying the concealed true label from the candidate label set, for model training. However, when the size of the candidate label set becomes excessively large, these learning-centric strategies would be unable to find the true label for model training, thereby causing performance degradation. This motivates us to think from a \emph{data-centric} perspective and pioneer a new PLL-related task called candidate label set pruning (CLSP) that aims to filter out certain potential false candidate labels in a training-free manner. To this end, we propose the first CLSP method based on the inconsistency between the representation space and the candidate label space. Specifically, for each candidate label of a training instance, if it is not a candidate label of the instance's nearest neighbors in the representation space, then it has a high probability of being a false label. Based on this intuition, we employ a per-example pruning scheme that filters out a specific proportion of high-probability false candidate labels. Theoretically, we prove an upper bound of the pruning error rate and analyze how the quality of representations affects our proposed method. Empirically, extensive experiments on both benchmark-simulated and real-world PLL datasets validate the great value of CLSP to significantly improve many state-of-the-art deep PLL methods.
Claudio Battiloro, Indro Spinelli, Lev Telyatnikov, Michael M. Bronstein, Simone Scardapane, Paolo Di Lorenzo
tl;dr: We study Latent Topology Inference (LTI) for learning higher-order cell complexes (with sparse and not regular topology) describing multi-way interactions between data points.
Latent Graph Inference (LGI) relaxed the reliance of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) on a given graph topology by dynamically learning it. However, most of LGI methods assume to have a (noisy, incomplete, improvable, ...) input graph to rewire and can solely learn regular graph topologies. In the wake of the success of Topological Deep Learning (TDL), we study Latent Topology Inference (LTI) for learning higher-order cell complexes (with sparse and not regular topology) describing multi-way interactions between data points. To this aim, we introduce the Differentiable Cell Complex Module (DCM), a novel learnable function that computes cell probabilities in the complex to improve the downstream task. We show how to integrate DCM with cell complex message-passing networks layers and train it in an end-to-end fashion, thanks to a two-step inference procedure that avoids an exhaustive search across all possible cells in the input, thus maintaining scalability. Our model is tested on several homophilic and heterophilic graph datasets and it is shown to outperform other state-of-the-art techniques, offering significant improvements especially in cases where an input graph is not provided.
Luo donghao, wang xue
tl;dr: We take a seldom-explored way in time series community to successfully bring convolution back to time series analysis. Our pure convolution structure achieves consistent state-of-the-art in five mainstream time series analysis tasks.
Recently, Transformer-based and MLP-based models have emerged rapidly and won dominance in time series analysis. In contrast, convolution is losing steam in time series tasks nowadays for inferior performance. This paper studies the open question of how to better use convolution in time series analysis and makes efforts to bring convolution back to the arena of time series analysis. To this end, we modernize the traditional TCN and conduct time series related modifications to make it more suitable for time series tasks. As the outcome, we propose ModernTCN and successfully solve this open question through a seldom-explored way in time series community. As a pure convolution structure, ModernTCN still achieves the consistent state-of-the-art performance on five mainstream time series analysis tasks while maintaining the efficiency advantage of convolution-based models, therefore providing a better balance of efficiency and performance than state-of-the-art Transformer-based and MLP-based models. Our study further reveals that, compared with previous convolution-based models, our ModernTCN has much larger effective receptive fields (ERFs), therefore can better unleash the potential of convolution in time series analysis. Code is available at this repository: https://github.com/luodhhh/ModernTCN.
Isaac Reid, Krzysztof Marcin Choromanski, Eli Berger, Adrian Weller
tl;dr: A novel random walk-based algorithm for unbiased estimation of arbitrary functions of a weighted adjacency matrix
We propose a novel random walk-based algorithm for unbiased estimation of arbitrary functions of a weighted adjacency matrix, coined general graph random features (g-GRFs). This includes many of the most popular examples of kernels defined on the nodes of a graph. Our algorithm enjoys subquadratic time complexity with respect to the number of nodes, overcoming the notoriously prohibitive cubic scaling of exact graph kernel evaluation. It can also be trivially distributed across machines, permitting learning on much larger networks. At the heart of the algorithm is a modulation function which upweights or downweights the contribution from different random walks depending on their lengths. We show that by parameterising it with a neural network we can obtain g-GRFs that give higher-quality kernel estimates or perform efficient, scalable kernel learning. We provide robust theoretical analysis and support our findings with experiments including pointwise estimation of fixed graph kernels, solving non-homogeneous graph ordinary differential equations, node clustering and kernel regression on triangular meshes.
Mohammad Reza Samsami, Artem Zholus, Janarthanan Rajendran, Sarath Chandar
tl;dr: We propose R2I, a model-based agent with enhanced memory capabilities which shines in challenging memory reinforcement learning tasks.
Current model-based reinforcement learning (MBRL) agents struggle with long-term dependencies. This limits their ability to effectively solve tasks involving extended time gaps between actions and outcomes, or tasks demanding the recalling of distant observations to inform current actions. To improve temporal coherence, we integrate a new family of state space models (SSMs) in world models of MBRL agents to present a new method, Recall to Imagine (R2I). This integration aims to enhance both long-term memory and long-horizon credit assignment. Through a diverse set of illustrative tasks, we systematically demonstrate that R2I establishes a new state-of-the-art performance in challenging memory and credit assignment RL tasks, such as Memory Maze, BSuite, and POPGym. At the same time, it upholds comparable performance in classic RL tasks, such as Atari and DMC, suggesting the generality of our method. We also show that R2I is faster than the state-of-the-art MBRL method, DreamerV3, resulting in faster wall-time convergence.
Hangting Ye, Wei Fan, Xiaozhuang Song, Shun Zheng, He Zhao, Dan dan Guo, Yi Chang
tl;dr: To construct prototype-based projection space and learn the disentangled representation around global tabular data prototypes.
Tabular data have been playing a mostly important role in diverse real-world fields, such as healthcare, engineering, finance, etc. With the recent success of deep learning, many tabular machine learning (ML) methods based on deep networks (e.g., Transformer, ResNet) have achieved competitive performance on tabular benchmarks. However, existing deep tabular ML methods suffer from the representation entanglement and localization, which largely hinders their prediction performance and leads to performance inconsistency on tabular tasks. To overcome these problems, we explore a novel direction of applying prototype learning for tabular ML and propose a prototype-based tabular representation learning framework, PTaRL, for tabular prediction tasks. The core idea of PTaRL is to construct prototype-based projection space (P-Space) and learn the disentangled representation around global data prototypes. Specifically, PTaRL mainly involves two stages: (i) Prototype Generating, that constructs global prototypes as the basis vectors of P-Space for representation, and (ii) Prototype Projecting, that projects the data samples into P-Space and keeps the core global data information via Optimal Transport. Then, to further acquire the disentangled representations, we constrain PTaRL with two strategies: (i) to diversify the coordinates towards global prototypes of different representations within P-Space, we bring up a diversifying constraint for representation calibration; (ii) to avoid prototype entanglement in P-Space, we introduce a matrix orthogonalization constraint to ensure the independence of global prototypes. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments in PTaRL coupled with state-of-the-art deep tabular ML models on various tabular benchmarks and the results have shown our consistent superiority.
Tianrong Chen, Jiatao Gu, Laurent Dinh, Evangelos Theodorou, Joshua M. Susskind, Shuangfei Zhai
Diffusion models (DMs) represent state-of-the-art generative models for continuous inputs. DMs work by constructing a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) in the input space (ie, position space), and using a neural network to reverse it. In this work, we introduce a novel generative modeling framework grounded in \textbf{phase space dynamics}, where a phase space is defined as {an augmented space encompassing both position and velocity.} Leveraging insights from Stochastic Optimal Control, we construct a path measure in the phase space that enables efficient sampling. {In contrast to DMs, our framework demonstrates the capability to generate realistic data points at an early stage of dynamics propagation.} This early prediction sets the stage for efficient data generation by leveraging additional velocity information along the trajectory. On standard image generation benchmarks, our model yields favorable performance over baselines in the regime of small Number of Function Evaluations (NFEs). Furthermore, our approach rivals the performance of diffusion models equipped with efficient sampling techniques, underscoring its potential as a new tool generative modeling.
Harikrishna Narasimhan, Aditya Krishna Menon, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Neha Gupta, Sanjiv Kumar
tl;dr: Theoretically-grounded approach for learning to reject with general evaluation metrics including the balanced and worst-group errors
Learning to reject (L2R) is a classical problem where one seeks a classifier capable of abstaining on low-confidence samples. Most prior work on L2R has focused on minimizing the standard misclassification error. However, in many real-world applications, the label distribution is highly imbalanced, necessitating alternate evaluation metrics such as the balanced error or the worst-group error that enforce equitable performance across both the head and tail classes. In this paper, we establish that traditional L2R methods can be grossly sub-optimal for such metrics, and show that this is due to an intricate dependence in the objective between the label costs and the rejector. We then derive the form of the Bayes-optimal classifier and rejector for the balanced error, propose a novel plug-in approach to mimic this solution, and extend our results to general evaluation metrics. Through experiments on benchmark image classification tasks, we show that our approach yields better trade-offs in both the balanced and worst-group error compared to L2R baselines.
Yijie Lin, Jie Zhang, Zhenyu Huang, Jia Liu, zujie wen, Xi Peng
Existing video-language studies mainly focus on learning short video clips, leaving long-term temporal dependencies rarely explored due to over-high computational cost of modeling long videos. To address this issue, one feasible solution is learning the correspondence between video clips and captions, which however inevitably encounters the multi-granularity noisy correspondence (MNC) problem. To be specific, MNC refers to the clip-caption misalignment (coarse-grained) and frame-word misalignment (fine-grained), hindering temporal learning and video understanding. In this paper, we propose NOise Robust Temporal Optimal traNsport (Norton) that addresses MNC in a unified optimal transport (OT) framework. In brief, Norton employs video-paragraph and clip-caption contrastive losses to capture long-term dependencies based on OT. To address coarse-grained misalignment in video-paragraph contrast, Norton filters out the irrelevant clips and captions through an alignable prompt bucket and realigns asynchronous clip-caption pairs based on transport distance. To address the fine-grained misalignment, Norton incorporates a soft-maximum operator to identify crucial words and key frames. Additionally, Norton exploits the potential faulty negative samples in clip-caption contrast by rectifying the alignment target with OT assignment to ensure precise temporal modeling. Extensive experiments on video retrieval, videoQA, and action segmentation verify the effectiveness of our method. Code is available at https://lin-yijie.github.io/projects/Norton.
Nirmit Joshi, Gal Vardi, Nathan Srebro
tl;dr: We study the overfitting behavior of min-norm networks in the noisy regression setting.
Understanding how overparameterized neural networks generalize despite perfect interpolation of noisy training data is a fundamental question. Mallinar et. al. (2022) noted that neural networks seem to often exhibit ``tempered overfitting'', wherein the population risk does not converge to the Bayes optimal error, but neither does it approach infinity, yielding non-trivial generalization. However, this has not been studied rigorously. We provide the first rigorous analysis of the overfiting behaviour of regression with minimum norm ($\ell_2$ of weights), focusing on univariate two-layer ReLU networks. We show overfitting is tempered (with high probability) when measured with respect to the $L_1$ loss, but also show that the situation is more complex than suggested by Mallinar et. al., and overfitting is catastrophic with respect to the $L_2$ loss, or when taking an expectation over the training set.
Huaixiu Steven Zheng, Swaroop Mishra, Xinyun Chen, Heng-Tze Cheng, Ed H. Chi, Quoc V Le, Denny Zhou
tl;dr: We show that using a simple prompting technique called Step-Back Prompting, LLMs are capable of doing abstractions to derive high-level concepts and first principles from specific examples which helps them in solving complex tasks.
We present STEP-BACK PROMPTING, a simple prompting technique that enables LLMs to do abstractions to derive high-level concepts and first principles from instances containing specific details. Using the concepts and principles to guide reasoning, LLMs significantly improve their abilities in following a correct reasoning path towards the solution. We conduct experiments of STEP-BACK PROMPTING with PaLM-2L, GPT-4 and Llama2-70B models, and observe substantial performance gains on various challenging reasoning-intensive tasks including STEM, Knowledge QA, and Multi-Hop Reasoning. For instance, STEP-BACK PROMPTING improves PaLM-2L performance on MMLU (Physics and Chemistry) by 7% and 11% respectively, TimeQA by 27%, and MuSiQue by 7%.
Angelica Chen, Ravid Shwartz-Ziv, Kyunghyun Cho, Matthew L Leavitt, Naomi Saphra
Most interpretability research in NLP focuses on understanding the behavior and features of a fully trained model. However, certain insights into model behavior may only be accessible by observing the trajectory of the training process. We present a case study of syntax acquisition in masked language models (MLMs) that demonstrates how analyzing the evolution of interpretable artifacts throughout training deepens our understanding of emergent behavior. In particular, we study Syntactic Attention Structure (SAS), a naturally emerging property of MLMs wherein specific Transformer heads tend to focus on specific syntactic relations. We identify a brief window in pretraining when models abruptly acquire SAS, concurrent with a steep drop in loss. This breakthrough precipitates the subsequent acquisition of linguistic capabilities. We then examine the causal role of SAS by manipulating SAS during training, and demonstrate that SAS is necessary for the development of grammatical capabilities. We further find that SAS competes with other beneficial traits during training, and that briefly suppressing SAS improves model quality. These findings offer an interpretation of a real-world example of both simplicity bias and breakthrough training dynamics.
Zihan Wang, Arthur Jacot
tl;dr: Low-rank bias of SGD in L2 reg. linear nets: SGD jumps from high to low rank minima, with no probability of jumping back.
The $L_{2}$-regularized loss of Deep Linear Networks (DLNs) with more than one hidden layers has multiple local minima, corresponding to matrices with different ranks. In tasks such as matrix completion, the goal is to converge to the local minimum with the smallest rank that still fits the training data. While rank-underestimating minima can be avoided since they do not fit the data, GD might get stuck at rank-overestimating minima. We show that with SGD, there is always a probability to jump from a higher rank minimum to a lower rank one, but the probability of jumping back is zero. More precisely, we define a sequence of sets $B_{1}\subset B_{2}\subset\cdots\subset B_{R}$ so that $B_{r}$ contains all minima of rank $r$ or less (and not more) that are absorbing for small enough ridge parameters $\lambda$ and learning rates $\eta$: SGD has prob. 0 of leaving $B_{r}$, and from any starting point there is a non-zero prob. for SGD to go in $B_{r}$.
Germain Kolossov, Andrea Montanari, Pulkit Tandon
Given a sample of size $N$, it is often useful to select a subsample of smaller size $n<N$ to be used for statistical estimation or learning. Such a data selection step is useful to reduce the requirements of data labeling and the computational complexity of learning. We assume to be given $N$ unlabeled samples $x_{i}$, and to be given access to a `surrogate model' that can predict labels $y_i$ better than random guessing. Our goal is to select a subset of the samples, to be denoted by {$x_{i}$}$_{i\in G}$, of size $|G|=n<N$. We then acquire labels for this set and we use them to train a model via regularized empirical risk minimization. By using a mixture of numerical experiments on real and synthetic data, and mathematical derivations under low- and high- dimensional asymptotics, we show that: $(i)$ Data selection can be very effective, in particular beating training on the full sample in some cases; $(ii)$ Certain popular choices in data selection methods (e.g. unbiased reweighted subsampling, or influence function-based subsampling) can be substantially suboptimal.
Edward J Hu, Moksh Jain, Eric Elmoznino, Younesse Kaddar, Guillaume Lajoie, Yoshua Bengio, Nikolay Malkin
tl;dr: We fine-tune LLMs to sample from intractable posteriors for tasks such as infilling, chain-of-thought reasoning, and tool-augmented inference.
Autoregressive large language models (LLMs) compress knowledge from their training data through next-token conditional distributions. This limits tractable querying of this knowledge to start-to-end autoregressive sampling. However, many tasks of interest---including sequence continuation, infilling, and other forms of constrained generation---involve sampling from intractable posterior distributions. We address this limitation by using amortized Bayesian inference to sample from these intractable posteriors. Such amortization is algorithmically achieved by fine-tuning LLMs via diversity-seeking reinforcement learning algorithms: generative flow networks (GFlowNets). We empirically demonstrate that this distribution-matching paradigm of LLM fine-tuning can serve as an effective alternative to maximum-likelihood training and reward-maximizing policy optimization. As an important application, we interpret chain-of-thought reasoning as a latent variable modeling problem and demonstrate that our approach enables data-efficient adaptation of LLMs to tasks that require multi-step rationalization and tool use.
Gerard Ben Arous, Reza Gheissari, Jiaoyang Huang, Aukosh Jagannath
We rigorously study the joint evolution of training dynamics via stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and the spectra of empirical Hessian and gradient matrices. We prove that in two canonical classification tasks for multi-class high-dimensional mixtures and either 1 or 2-layer neural networks, the SGD trajectory rapidly aligns with emerging low-rank outlier eigenspaces of the Hessian and gradient matrices. Moreover, in multi-layer settings this alignment occurs per layer, with the final layer's outlier eigenspace evolving over the course of training, and exhibiting rank deficiency when the SGD converges to sub-optimal classifiers. This establishes some of the rich predictions that have arisen from extensive numerical studies in the last decade about the spectra of Hessian and information matrices over the course of training in overparametrized networks.
Vivien Cabannes, Elvis Dohmatob, Alberto Bietti
tl;dr: Mechanistic interpretability of memorization (modeling transformer intermediate layers)
Learning arguably involves the discovery and memorization of abstract rules. The aim of this paper is to study associative memory mechanisms. Our model is based on high-dimensional matrices consisting of outer products of embeddings, which relates to the inner layers of transformer language models. We derive precise scaling laws with respect to sample size and parameter size, and discuss the statistical efficiency of different estimators, including optimization-based algorithms. We provide extensive numerical experiments to validate and interpret theoretical results, including fine-grained visualizations of the stored memory associations.
Shashanka Venkataramanan, Mamshad Nayeem Rizve, Joao Carreira, Yuki M Asano, Yannis Avrithis
Self-supervised learning has unlocked the potential of scaling up pretraining to billions of images, since annotation is unnecessary. But are we making the best use of data? How more economical can we be? In this work, we attempt to answer this question by making two contributions. First, we investigate first-person videos and introduce a ``Walking Tours'' dataset. These videos are high-resolution, hours-long, captured in a single uninterrupted take, depicting a large number of objects and actions with natural scene transitions. They are unlabeled and uncurated, thus realistic for self-supervision and comparable with human learning. Second, we introduce a novel self-supervised image pretraining method tailored for learning from continuous videos. Existing methods typically adapt image-based pretraining approaches to incorporate more frames. Instead, we advocate a ``tracking to learn to recognize'' approach. Our method called DoRA, leads to attention maps that **D**isc**O**ver and t**RA**ck objects over time in an end-to-end manner, using transformer cross-attention. We derive multiple views from the tracks and use them in a classical self-supervised distillation loss. Using our novel approach, a single Walking Tours video remarkably becomes a strong competitor to ImageNet for several image and video downstream tasks.
Steeven JANNY, Madiha Nadri, Julie Digne, Christian Wolf
Modern techniques for physical simulations rely on numerical schemes and mesh-refinement methods to address trade-offs between precision and complexity, but these handcrafted solutions are tedious and require high computational power. Data-driven methods based on large-scale machine learning promise high adaptivity by integrating long-range dependencies more directly and efficiently. In this work, we focus on computational fluid dynamics and address the shortcomings of a large part of the literature, which are based on fixed support for computations and predictions in the form of regular or irregular grids. We propose a novel setup to perform predictions in a continuous spatial and temporal domain while being trained on sparse observations. We formulate the task as a double observation problem and propose a solution with two interlinked dynamical systems defined on, respectively, the sparse positions and the continuous domain, which allows to forecast and interpolate a solution from the initial condition. Our practical implementation involves recurrent GNNs and a spatio-temporal attention observer capable of interpolating the solution at arbitrary locations. Our model not only generalizes to new initial conditions (as standard auto-regressive models do) but also performs evaluation at arbitrary space and time locations. We evaluate on three standard datasets in fluid dynamics and compare to strong baselines, which are outperformed in classical settings and the extended new task requiring continuous predictions.
Enric Boix-Adserà, Omid Saremi, Emmanuel Abbe, Samy Bengio, Etai Littwin, Joshua M. Susskind
We investigate the capability of Transformer large language models (LLMs) to generalize on unseen symbols when trained on tasks that rely on abstract symbols (e.g., variables in programming and mathematics). Such a 'variable-binding' capability has long been studied in the neuroscience literature as one of the most basic 'reasoning' capabilities. For (i) binary classification tasks, we prove that Transformers can generalize to unseen symbols but require astonishingly large training data. For (ii) tasks with labels dependent on input symbols, we show an ''inverse scaling law'': Transformers fail to generalize to unseen symbols as their embedding dimension increases. For both cases (i) and (ii), we propose a Transformer modification, adding two trainable parameters per head that can reduce the amount of data needed.
Thien Le, Luana Ruiz, Stefanie Jegelka
tl;dr: We formulate sampling problems in the graphon limit to discover intrinsic structures of large graph, with both theoretical guarantees and empirical evidence.
Large-scale graph machine learning is challenging as the complexity of learning models scales with the graph size. Subsampling the graph is a viable alternative, but sampling on graphs is nontrivial as graphs are non-Euclidean. Existing graph sampling techniques require not only computing the spectra of large matrices but also repeating these computations when the graph changes, e.g., grows. In this paper, we introduce a signal sampling theory for a type of graph limit---the graphon. We prove a Poincaré inequality for graphon signals and show that complements of node subsets satisfying this inequality are unique sampling sets for Paley-Wiener spaces of graphon signals. Exploiting connections with spectral clustering and Gaussian elimination, we prove that such sampling sets are consistent in the sense that unique sampling sets on a convergent graph sequence converge to unique sampling sets on the graphon. We then propose a related graphon signal sampling algorithm for large graphs, and demonstrate its good empirical performance on graph machine learning tasks.
Dean A Pospisil, Brett W. Larsen, Sarah E Harvey, Alex H Williams
tl;dr: Novel estimator of geometric similarity with tunable bias-variance tradeoff, outperforms standard estimators in high-dimensional settings.
Measuring geometric similarity between high-dimensional network representations is a topic of longstanding interest to neuroscience and deep learning. Although many methods have been proposed, only a few works have rigorously analyzed their statistical efficiency or quantified estimator uncertainty in data-limited regimes. Here, we derive upper and lower bounds on the worst-case convergence of standard estimators of shape distance—a measure of representational dissimilarity proposed by Williams et al. (2021). These bounds reveal the challenging nature of the problem in high-dimensional feature spaces. To overcome these challenges, we introduce a novel method-of-moments estimator with a tunable bias-variance tradeoff parameterized by an upper bound on bias. We show that this estimator achieves superior performance to standard estimators in simulation and on neural data, particularly in high-dimensional settings. Our theoretical work and estimator thus respectively define and dramatically expand the scope of neural data for which geometric similarity can be accurately measured.
Denizalp Goktas, Amy Greenwald, Sadie Zhao, Alec Koppel, Sumitra Ganesh
tl;dr: We provide an efficient generative adversarial characterization for the inference of parameters of a game in inverse game theory and inverse multiagent (reinforcement) learning settings.
In this paper, we study inverse game theory (resp. inverse multiagent learning) in which the goal is to find parameters of a game’s payoff functions for which the expected (resp. sampled) behavior is an equilibrium. We formulate these problems as a generative-adversarial (i.e., min-max) optimization problem, based on which we develop polynomial-time algorithms the solve them, the former of which relies on an exact first-order oracle, and the latter, a stochastic one. We extend our approach to solve inverse multiagent apprenticeship learning in polynomial time and number of samples, where we seek a simulacrum, i.e., parameters and an associated equilibrium, which replicate observations in expectation. We find that our approach outperforms other widely-used methods in predicting prices in Spanish electricity markets based on time-series data.
Suhan Shetty, Teng Xue, Sylvain Calinon
tl;dr: The paper proposes a novel approximate dynamic programming algorithm that can handle hybrid action space
Control of dynamic systems involving hybrid actions is a challenging task in robotics. To address this, we present a novel algorithm called Generalized Policy Iteration using Tensor Train (TTPI) that belongs to the class of Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP). We use a low-rank tensor approximation technique called Tensor Train (TT) to approximate the state-value and advantage function which enables us to efficiently handle hybrid systems. We demonstrate the superiority of our approach over previous baselines for some benchmark problems with hybrid action spaces. Additionally, the robustness and generalization of the policy for hybrid systems are showcased through a real-world robotics experiment involving a non-prehensile manipulation task which is considered to be a highly challenging control problem.
Victor Akinwande, Yiding Jiang, Dylan Sam, J Zico Kolter
tl;dr: We show that prompt engineering generalizes well via a PAC-Bayes analysis.
Zero-shot learning in prompted vision-language models, the practice of crafting prompts to build classifiers without an explicit training process, has achieved impressive performance in many settings. This success presents a seemingly surprising observation: these methods suffer relatively little from overfitting, i.e., when a prompt is manually engineered to achieve low error on a given training set (thus rendering the method no longer actually zero-shot), the approach still performs well on held-out test data. In this paper, we show that we can explain such performance well via recourse to classical PAC-Bayes bounds. Specifically, we show that the discrete nature of prompts, combined with a PAC-Bayes prior given by a language model, results in generalization bounds that are remarkably tight by the standards of the literature: for instance, the generalization bound of an ImageNet classifier is often within a few percentage points of the true test error. We demonstrate empirically that this holds for existing handcrafted prompts and prompts generated through simple greedy search. Furthermore, the resulting bound is well-suited for model selection: the models with the best bound typically also have the best test performance. This work thus provides a possible justification for the widespread practice of "prompt engineering," even if it seems that such methods could potentially overfit the training data.
Hong Liu, Zhiyuan Li, David Leo Wright Hall, Percy Liang, Tengyu Ma
tl;dr: We design a stochastic second-order optimizer for language model pre-training which is significantly faster than Adam.
Given the massive cost of language model pre-training, a non-trivial improvement of the optimization algorithm would lead to a material reduction on the time and cost of training. Adam and its variants have been state-of-the-art for years, and more sophisticated second-order (Hessian-based) optimizers often incur too much per-step overhead. In this paper, we propose Sophia, a simple scalable second-order optimizer that uses a light-weight estimate of the diagonal Hessian as the pre-conditioner. The update is the moving average of the gradients divided by the moving average of the estimated Hessian, followed by element-wise clipping. The clipping controls the worst-case update size and tames the negative impact of non-convexity and rapid change of Hessian along the trajectory. Sophia only estimates the diagonal Hessian every handful of iterations, which has negligible average per-step time and memory overhead. On language modeling with GPT models of sizes ranging from 125M to 1.5B, Sophia achieves a 2x speed-up compared to Adam in the number of steps, total compute, and wall-clock time, achieving the same perplexity with 50\% fewer steps, less total compute, and reduced wall-clock time.
Wenhao Zhan, Masatoshi Uehara, Nathan Kallus, Jason D. Lee, Wen Sun
tl;dr: PAC offline reinforcement learning from preference feedback over trajectories using general function approximation.
In this paper, we investigate the problem of offline Preference-based Reinforcement Learning (PbRL) with human feedback where feedback is available in the form of preference between trajectory pairs rather than explicit rewards. Our proposed algorithm consists of two main steps: (1) estimate the implicit reward using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) with general function approximation from offline data and (2) solve a distributionally robust planning problem over a confidence set around the MLE. We consider the general reward setting where the reward can be defined over the whole trajectory and provide a novel guarantee that allows us to learn any target policy with a polynomial number of samples, as long as the target policy is covered by the offline data. This guarantee is the first of its kind with general function approximation. To measure the coverage of the target policy, we introduce a new single-policy concentrability coefficient, which can be upper bounded by the per-trajectory concentrability coefficient. We also establish lower bounds that highlight the necessity of such concentrability and the difference from standard RL, where state-action-wise rewards are directly observed. We further extend and analyze our algorithm when the feedback is given over action pairs.
Shunyu Yao, Howard Chen, Austin W. Hanjie, Runzhe Yang, Karthik R Narasimhan
tl;dr: We propose a new framework for the systematic construction of challenging instances for constrained text generation.
Text generation under constraints have seen increasing interests in natural language processing, especially with the rapidly improving capabilities of large language models. However, existing benchmarks for constrained generation usually focus on fixed constraint types (e.g. generate a sentence containing certain words) that have proved to be easy for state-of-the-art models like GPT-4. We present COLLIE, a grammar-based framework that allows the specification of rich, compositional constraints with diverse generation levels (word, sentence, paragraph, passage) and modeling challenges (e.g. language understanding, logical reasoning, counting, semantic planning). We also develop tools for automatic extraction of task instances given a constraint structure and a raw text corpus. Using COLLIE, we compile the COLLIE-v1 dataset with 1,132 instances comprising 13 constraint structures. We perform systematic experiments across five state-of-the-art instruction-tuned language models and analyze their performances to reveal shortcomings. COLLIE is designed to be extensible and lightweight, and we hope the community finds it useful to develop more complex constraints and evaluations in the future.
Chongyu Fan, Jiancheng Liu, Yihua Zhang, Eric Wong, Dennis Wei, Sijia Liu
With evolving data regulations, machine unlearning (MU) has become an important tool for fostering trust and safety in today's AI models. However, existing MU methods focusing on data and/or weight perspectives often suffer limitations in unlearning accuracy, stability, and cross-domain applicability. To address these challenges, we introduce the concept of 'weight saliency' for MU, drawing parallels with input saliency in model explanation. This innovation directs MU's attention toward specific model weights rather than the entire model, improving effectiveness and efficiency. The resultant method that we call saliency unlearning (SalUn) narrows the performance gap with 'exact' unlearning (model retraining from scratch after removing the forgetting data points). To the best of our knowledge, SalUn is the first principled MU approach that can effectively erase the influence of forgetting data, classes, or concepts in both image classification and generation tasks. As highlighted below, For example, SalUn yields a stability advantage in high-variance random data forgetting, e.g., with a 0.2% gap compared to exact unlearning on the CIFAR-10 dataset. Moreover, in preventing conditional diffusion models from generating harmful images, SalUn achieves nearly 100% unlearning accuracy, outperforming current state-of-the-art baselines like Erased Stable Diffusion and Forget-Me-Not. Codes are available at https://github.com/OPTML-Group/Unlearn-Saliency. **WARNING**: This paper contains model outputs that may be offensive in nature.
Ethan Steinberg, Jason Alan Fries, Yizhe Xu, Nigam Shah
tl;dr: We introduce MOTOR, a foundation model for time-to-event predictions in healthcare that is trained on up to 55M patient records and outperforms existing state-of-the-art TTE methods.
We present a self-supervised, time-to-event (TTE) foundation model called MOTOR (Many Outcome Time Oriented Representations) which is pretrained on timestamped sequences of events in electronic health records (EHR) and health insurance claims. TTE models are used for estimating the probability distribution of the time until a specific event occurs, which is an important task in medical settings. TTE models provide many advantages over classification using fixed time horizons, including naturally handling censored observations, but are challenging to train with limited labeled data. MOTOR addresses this challenge by pretraining on up to 55M patient records (9B clinical events). We evaluate MOTOR's transfer learning performance on 19 tasks, across 3 patient databases (a private EHR system, MIMIC-IV, and Merative claims data). Task-specific models adapted from MOTOR improve time-dependent C statistics by 4.6\% over state-of-the-art, improve label efficiency by up to 95\%, and are more robust to temporal distributional shifts. We further evaluate cross-site portability by adapting our MOTOR foundation model for six prediction tasks on the MIMIC-IV dataset, where it outperforms all baselines. MOTOR is the first foundation model for medical TTE predictions and we release a 143M parameter pretrained model for research use at https://huggingface.co/StanfordShahLab/motor-t-base.
Neria Uzan, Nir Weinberger
tl;dr: We derive optimal representations for classes of prediction tasks. We establish the theoretically optimal randomized representation in the linear-MSE setting, and propose an iterative algorithm for optimal representation in the general setting.
We propose a game-based formulation for learning dimensionality-reducing representations of feature vectors, when only a prior knowledge on future prediction tasks is available. In this game, the first player chooses a representation, and then the second player adversarially chooses a prediction task from a given class, representing the prior knowledge. The first player aims to minimize, and the second player to maximize, the regret: The minimal prediction loss using the representation, compared to the same loss using the original features. We consider the canonical setting in which the representation, the response to predict and the predictors are all linear functions, and the loss function is the mean squared error. We derive the theoretically optimal representation in pure strategies, which shows the effectiveness of the prior knowledge, and the optimal regret in mixed strategies, which shows the usefulness of randomizing the representation. For general representation, prediction and loss functions, we propose an efficient algorithm to optimize a randomized representation. The algorithm only requires the gradients of the loss function, and is based on incrementally adding a representation rule to a mixture of such rules.
Yonatan Oren, Nicole Meister, Niladri S. Chatterji, Faisal Ladhak, Tatsunori Hashimoto
Large language models are trained on vast amounts of internet data, prompting concerns that they have memorized public benchmarks. Detecting this type of contamination is challenging because the pretraining data used by proprietary models are often not publicly accessible. We propose a procedure for detecting test set contamination of language models with exact false positive guarantees and without access to pretraining data or model weights. Our approach leverages the fact that when there is no data contamination, all orderings of an exchangeable benchmark should be equally likely. In contrast, the tendency for language models to memorize example order means that a contaminated language model will find certain canonical orderings to be much more likely than others. Our test flags potential contamination whenever the likelihood of a canonically ordered benchmark dataset is significantly higher than the likelihood after shuffling the examples. We demonstrate that our procedure is sensitive enough to reliably detect contamination in challenging situations, including models as small as 1.4 billion parameters, on small test sets only 1000 examples, and datasets that appear only a few times in the pretraining corpus. Finally, we evaluate LLaMA-2 to apply our test in a realistic setting and find our results to be consistent with existing contamination evaluations.
Sen Cui, Abudukelimu Wuerkaixi, Weishen Pan, Jian Liang, Lei Fang, Changshui Zhang, Fei Wang
tl;dr: This paper studies the missing modality imputation from the patchwork.
In this paper, we investigate a new practical learning scenario, where the data distributed in different sources/clients are typically generated with various modalities. Existing research on learning from multi-source data mostly assume that each client owns the data of all modalities, which may largely limit its practicability. In light of the expensiveness and sparsity of multimodal data, we propose patchwork learning to jointly learn from fragmented multimodal data in distributed clients. Considering the concerns on data privacy, patchwork learning aims to impute incomplete multimodal data for diverse downstream tasks without accessing the raw data directly. Local clients could miss different modality combinations. Due to the statistical heterogeneity induced by non-i.i.d. data, the imputation is more challenging since the learned dependencies fail to adapt to the imputation of other clients. In this paper, we provide a novel imputation framework to tackle modality combination heterogeneity and statistical heterogeneity simultaneously, called ``collaborative adaptation''. In particular, for two observed modality combinations from two clients, we learn the transformations between their maximal intersection and other modalities by proposing a novel ELBO. We improve the worst-performing required transformations through a Pareto min-max optimization framework. In extensive experiments, we demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method compared to existing related methods on benchmark data sets and a real-world clinical data set.
Blake Bordelon, Lorenzo Noci, Mufan Bill Li, Boris Hanin, Cengiz Pehlevan
tl;dr: A study of hyperparameter transfer and training dynamics in large depth residual neural networks.
The cost of hyperparameter tuning in deep learning has been rising with model sizes, prompting practitioners to find new tuning methods using a proxy of smaller networks. One such proposal uses $\mu$P parameterized networks, where the optimal hyperparameters for small width networks *transfer* to networks with arbitrarily large width. However, in this scheme, hyperparameters do not transfer across depths. As a remedy, we study residual networks with a residual branch scale of $1/\sqrt{\text{depth}}$ in combination with the $\mu$P parameterization. We provide experiments demonstrating that residual architectures including convolutional ResNets and vision transformers trained with this parameterization exhibit transfer of optimal hyperparameters across width and depth on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet. Furthermore, our empirical findings are supported and motivated by theory. Using recent developments in the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) description of neural network learning dynamics, we show that this parameterization of ResNets admits a well-defined feature learning joint infinite-width and infinite-depth limit and show convergence of finite-size network dynamics towards this limit.
Josef Dai, Xuehai Pan, Ruiyang Sun, Jiaming Ji, Xinbo Xu, Mickel Liu, Yizhou Wang, Yaodong Yang
tl;dr: Safe Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback
With the development of large language models (LLMs), striking a balance between the performance and safety of AI systems has never been more critical. However, the inherent tension between the objectives of helpfulness and harmlessness presents a significant challenge during LLM training. To address this issue, we propose Safe Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (Safe RLHF), a novel algorithm for human value alignment. Safe RLHF explicitly decouples human preferences regarding helpfulness and harmlessness, effectively avoiding the crowd workers' confusion about the tension and allowing us to train separate reward and cost models. We formalize the safety concern of LLMs as an optimization task of maximizing the reward function while satisfying specified cost constraints. Leveraging the Lagrangian method to solve this constrained problem, Safe RLHF dynamically adjusts the balance between the two objectives during fine-tuning. Through a three-round fine-tuning using Safe RLHF, we demonstrate a superior ability to mitigate harmful responses while enhancing model performance compared to existing value-aligned algorithms. Experimentally, we fine-tuned the Alpaca-7B using Safe RLHF and aligned it with collected human preferences, significantly improving its helpfulness and harmlessness according to human evaluations. Warning: This paper contains example data that may be offensive or harmful.
Kazem Meidani, Parshin Shojaee, Chandan K. Reddy, Amir Barati Farimani
tl;dr: We introduce a joint pre-training framework to enable mutual understanding between mathematical symbolic expressions and their numeric counterparts.
In an era where symbolic mathematical equations are indispensable for modeling complex natural phenomena, scientific inquiry often involves collecting observations and translating them into mathematical expressions. Recently, deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for extracting insights from data. However, existing models typically specialize in either numeric or symbolic domains, and are usually trained in a supervised manner tailored to specific tasks. This approach neglects the substantial benefits that could arise from a task-agnostic unified understanding between symbolic equations and their numeric counterparts. To bridge the gap, we introduce SNIP, a Symbolic-Numeric Integrated Pre-training, which employs joint contrastive learning between symbolic and numeric domains, enhancing their mutual similarities in the pre-trained embeddings. By performing latent space analysis, we observe that SNIP provides cross-domain insights into the representations, revealing that symbolic supervision enhances the embeddings of numeric data and vice versa. We evaluate SNIP across diverse tasks, including symbolic-to-numeric mathematical property prediction and numeric-to-symbolic equation discovery, commonly known as symbolic regression. Results show that SNIP effectively transfers to various tasks, consistently outperforming fully supervised baselines and competing strongly with established task-specific methods, especially in few-shot learning scenarios where available data is limited.
Xiong Xu, Kunzhe Huang, Yiming Li, Zhan Qin, Kui Ren
tl;dr: We analyze why existing backdoor trigger inversion (BTI) methods have low efficiency and similarity, based on which we propose a simple yet effective and effecient BTI that decouples benign features instead of backdoor features.
Recent studies revealed that using third-party models may lead to backdoor threats, where adversaries can maliciously manipulate model predictions based on backdoors implanted during model training. Arguably, backdoor trigger inversion (BTI), which generates trigger patterns of given benign samples for a backdoored model, is the most critical module for backdoor defenses used in these scenarios. With BTI, defenders can remove backdoors by fine-tuning based on generated poisoned samples with ground-truth labels or deactivate backdoors by removing trigger patterns during the inference process. However, we find that existing BTI methods suffer from relatively poor performance, $i.e.$, their generated triggers are significantly different from the ones used by the adversaries even in the feature space. We argue that it is mostly because existing methods require to 'extract' backdoor features at first, while this task is very difficult since defenders have no information ($e.g.$, trigger pattern or target label) about poisoned samples. In this paper, we explore BTI from another perspective where we decouple benign features instead of decoupling backdoor features directly. Specifically, our method consists of two main steps, including \textbf{(1)} decoupling benign features and \textbf{(2)} trigger inversion by minimizing the differences between benign samples and their generated poisoned version in decoupled benign features while maximizing the differences in remaining backdoor features. In particular, our method is more efficient since it doesn't need to `scan' all classes to speculate the target label, as required by existing BTI. We also exploit our BTI module to further design backdoor-removal and pre-processing-based defenses. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our defenses can reach state-of-the-art performances.
Kaichao You, Guo Qin, Anchang Bao, Meng Cao, Ping Huang, Jiulong Shan, Mingsheng Long
tl;dr: Propose Tune Mode, bridging the gap between Eval and Deploy Modes in ConvBN blocks, enhancing computational efficiency while retaining transfer learning performance. Integrated into PyTorch and MMCV.
Convolution-BatchNorm (ConvBN) blocks are integral components in various computer vision tasks and other domains. A ConvBN block can operate in three modes: Train, Eval, and Deploy. While the Train mode is indispensable for training models from scratch, the Eval mode is suitable for transfer learning and beyond, and the Deploy mode is designed for the deployment of models. This paper focuses on the trade-off between stability and efficiency in ConvBN blocks: Deploy mode is efficient but suffers from training instability; Eval mode is widely used in transfer learning but lacks efficiency. To solve the dilemma, we theoretically reveal the reason behind the diminished training stability observed in the Deploy mode. Subsequently, we propose a novel Tune mode to bridge the gap between Eval mode and Deploy mode. The proposed Tune mode is as stable as Eval mode for transfer learning, and its computational efficiency closely matches that of the Deploy mode. Through extensive experiments in object detection, classification, and adversarial example generation across $5$ datasets and $12$ model architectures, we demonstrate that the proposed Tune mode retains the performance while significantly reducing GPU memory footprint and training time, thereby contributing efficient ConvBN blocks for transfer learning and beyond. Our method has been integrated into both PyTorch (general machine learning framework) and MMCV/MMEngine (computer vision framework). Practitioners just need one line of code to enjoy our efficient ConvBN blocks thanks to PyTorch's builtin machine learning compilers.
Jiarong Liu, Yifan Zhong, Siyi Hu, Haobo Fu, QIANG FU, Xiaojun Chang, Yaodong Yang
tl;dr: A unified framework for learning stochastic policies in cooperative MARL.
*Multi-agent reinforcement learning* (MARL) has been shown effective for cooperative games in recent years. However, existing state-of-the-art methods face challenges related to sample complexity, training instability, and the risk of converging to a suboptimal Nash Equilibrium. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for learning \emph{stochastic} policies to resolve these issues. We embed cooperative MARL problems into probabilistic graphical models, from which we derive the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) objective for MARL. Based on the MaxEnt framework, we propose *Heterogeneous-Agent Soft Actor-Critic* (HASAC) algorithm. Theoretically, we prove the monotonic improvement and convergence to *quantal response equilibrium* (QRE) properties of HASAC. Furthermore, we generalize a unified template for MaxEnt algorithmic design named *Maximum Entropy Heterogeneous-Agent Mirror Learning* (MEHAML), which provides any induced method with the same guarantees as HASAC. We evaluate HASAC on six benchmarks: Bi-DexHands, Multi-Agent MuJoCo, StarCraft Multi-Agent Challenge, Google Research Football, Multi-Agent Particle Environment, and Light Aircraft Game. Results show that HASAC consistently outperforms strong baselines, exhibiting better sample efficiency, robustness, and sufficient exploration.
Yong Liu, Tengge Hu, Haoran Zhang, Haixu Wu, Shiyu Wang, Lintao Ma, Mingsheng Long
tl;dr: Based on the reflection on the duties of Transformer components, we propose inverted Transformer for time series forecasting, which achieves the SOTA in real-world applications and shows powerful strength on framework generalization.
The recent boom of linear forecasting models questions the ongoing passion for architectural modifications of Transformer-based forecasters. These forecasters leverage Transformers to model the global dependencies over temporal tokens of time series, with each token formed by multiple variates of the same timestamp. However, Transformers are challenged in forecasting series with larger lookback windows due to performance degradation and computation explosion. Besides, the embedding for each temporal token fuses multiple variates that represent potential delayed events and distinct physical measurements, which may fail in learning variate-centric representations and result in meaningless attention maps. In this work, we reflect on the competent duties of Transformer components and repurpose the Transformer architecture without any modification to the basic components. We propose iTransformer that simply applies the attention and feed-forward network on the inverted dimensions. Specifically, the time points of individual series are embedded into variate tokens which are utilized by the attention mechanism to capture multivariate correlations; meanwhile, the feed-forward network is applied for each variate token to learn nonlinear representations. The iTransformer model achieves state-of-the-art on challenging real-world datasets, which further empowers the Transformer family with promoted performance, generalization ability across different variates, and better utilization of arbitrary lookback windows, making it a nice alternative as the fundamental backbone of time series forecasting. Code is available at this repository: https://github.com/thuml/iTransformer.
Alizée Pace, Hugo Yèche, Bernhard Schölkopf, Gunnar Ratsch, Guy Tennenholtz
tl;dr: The paper tackles nonidentifiable hidden confounding in offline RL by introducing and leveraging delphic uncertainty -- a novel uncertainty estimation method for confounding bias, improving performance on simulated and real-world confounded data.
A prominent challenge of offline reinforcement learning (RL) is the issue of hidden confounding: unobserved variables may influence both the actions taken by the agent and the observed outcomes. Hidden confounding can compromise the validity of any causal conclusion drawn from data and presents a major obstacle to effective offline RL. In the present paper, we tackle the problem of hidden confounding in the nonidentifiable setting. We propose a definition of uncertainty due to hidden confounding bias, termed delphic uncertainty, which uses variation over world models compatible with the observations, and differentiate it from the well-known epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties. We derive a practical method for estimating the three types of uncertainties, and construct a pessimistic offline RL algorithm to account for them. Our method does not assume identifiability of the unobserved confounders, and attempts to reduce the amount of confounding bias. We demonstrate through extensive experiments and ablations the efficacy of our approach on a sepsis management benchmark, as well as on electronic health records. Our results suggest that nonidentifiable hidden confounding bias can be mitigated to improve offline RL solutions in practice.
Jicong Fan, Rui Chen, Zhao Zhang, Chris Ding
Neural networks have shown promising performance in collaborative filtering and matrix completion but the theoretical analysis is limited and there is still room for improvement in terms of the accuracy of recovering missing values. This paper presents a neuron-enhanced autoencoder matrix completion (AEMC-NE) method and applies it to collaborative filtering. Our AEMC-NE adds an element-wise autoencoder to each output of the main autoencoder to enhance the reconstruction capability. Thus it can adaptively learn an activation function for the output layer to approximate possibly complicated response functions in real data. We provide theoretical analysis for AEMC-NE as well as AEMC to investigate the generalization ability of autoencoder and deep learning in matrix completion, considering both missing completely at random and missing not at random. We show that the element-wise neural network has the potential to reduce the generalization error bound, the data sparsity can be useful, and the prediction performance is closely related to the difference between the numbers of variables and samples. The numerical results on synthetic data and benchmark datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of AEMC-NE in comparison to many baselines.
LINHAO LUO, Yuan-Fang Li, Reza Haf, Shirui Pan
tl;dr: we propose a novel method called Reasoning on Graphs (RoG) that synergizes LLMs with KGs to enable faithful and interpretable reasoning.
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive reasoning abilities in complex tasks. However, they lack up-to-date knowledge and experience hallucinations during reasoning, which can lead to incorrect reasoning processes and diminish their performance and trustworthiness. Knowledge graphs (KGs), which capture vast amounts of facts in a structured format, offer a reliable source of knowledge for reasoning. Nevertheless, existing KG-based LLM reasoning methods only treat KGs as factual knowledge bases and overlook the importance of their structural information for reasoning. In this paper, we propose a novel method called reasoning on graphs (RoG) that synergizes LLMs with KGs to enable faithful and interpretable reasoning. Specifically, we present a planning-retrieval-reasoning framework, where RoG first generates relation paths grounded by KGs as faithful plans. These plans are then used to retrieve valid reasoning paths from the KGs for LLMs to conduct faithful reasoning. Furthermore, RoG not only distills knowledge from KGs to improve the reasoning ability of LLMs through training but also allows seamless integration with any arbitrary LLMs during inference. Extensive experiments on two benchmark KGQA datasets demonstrate that RoG achieves state-of-the-art performance on KG reasoning tasks and generates faithful and interpretable reasoning results.
florence regol, Joud Chataoui, Mark Coates
Large pretrained models, coupled with fine-tuning, are slowly becoming established as the dominant architecture in machine learning. Even though these models offer impressive performance, their practical application is often limited by the prohibitive amount of resources required for $\textit{every}$ inference. Early-exiting dynamic neural networks (EDNN) circumvent this issue by allowing a model to make some of its predictions from intermediate layers (i.e., early-exit). Training an EDNN architecture is challenging as it consists of two intertwined components: the gating mechanism (GM) that controls early-exiting decisions and the intermediate inference modules (IMs) that perform inference from intermediate representations. As a result, most existing approaches rely on thresholding confidence metrics for the gating mechanism and strive to improve the underlying backbone network and the inference modules. Although successful, this approach has two fundamental shortcomings: 1) the GMs and the IMs are decoupled during training, leading to a train-test mismatch; and 2) the thresholding gating mechanism introduces a positive bias into the predictive probabilities, making it difficult to readily extract uncertainty information. We propose a novel architecture that connects these two modules. This leads to significant performance improvements on classification datasets and enables better uncertainty characterization capabilities.
Bowen Song, Soo Min Kwon, Zecheng Zhang, Xinyu Hu, Qing Qu, Liyue Shen
tl;dr: We show how to effectively leverage latent (or stable) diffusion as generative priors for solving general inverse problems.
Latent diffusion models have been demonstrated to generate high-quality images, while offering efficiency in model training compared to diffusion models operating in the pixel space. However, incorporating latent diffusion models to solve inverse problems remains a challenging problem due to the nonlinearity of the encoder and decoder. To address these issues, we propose ReSample, an algorithm that can solve general inverse problems with pre-trained latent diffusion models. Our algorithm incorporates data consistency by solving an optimization problem during the reverse sampling process, a concept that we term as hard data consistency. Upon solving this optimization problem, we propose a novel resampling scheme to map the measurement-consistent sample back onto the noisy data manifold and theoretically demonstrate its benefits. Lastly, we apply our algorithm to solve a wide range of linear and nonlinear inverse problems in both natural and medical images, demonstrating that our approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art approaches, including those based on pixel-space diffusion models.
Dongyang Liu, Meina Kan, Shiguang Shan, Xilin CHEN
Vision Transformers (ViTs) are now flourishing in the computer vision area. Despite the remarkable success, ViTs suffer from high computational costs, which greatly hinder their practical usage. Token reduction, which identifies and discards unimportant tokens during forward propagation, has then been proposed to make ViTs more efficient. For token reduction methodologies, a scoring metric is essential to distinguish between important and unimportant tokens. The attention score from the $\mathrm{[CLS]}$ token, which takes the responsibility to aggregate useful information and form the final output, has been established by prior works as an advantageous choice. Nevertheless, whereas the task pressure is applied at the end of the whole model, token reduction generally starts from very early blocks. Given the long distance in between, in the early blocks, $\mathrm{[CLS]}$ token lacks the impetus to gather task-relevant information, causing somewhat arbitrary attention allocation. This phenomenon, in turn, degrades the reliability of token scoring and substantially compromises the effectiveness of token reduction. Inspired by advances in the domain of dynamic neural networks, in this paper, we introduce Multi-Exit Token Reduction (METR), a simple romance between multi-exit architecture and token reduction—two areas previously considered orthogonal. By injecting early task pressure via multi-exit loss, the $\mathrm{[CLS]}$ token is spurred to collect task-related information in even early blocks, thus bolstering the credibility of $\mathrm{[CLS]}$ attention as a token-scoring metric. Additionally, we employ self-distillation to further refine the quality of early supervision. Extensive experiments substantiate both the existence and effectiveness of the newfound chemistry. Comparative assessments also indicate that METR outperforms state-of-the-art token reduction methods on standard benchmarks, especially under aggressive reduction ratios.
Yinan Zheng, Jianxiong Li, Dongjie Yu, Yujie Yang, Shengbo Eben Li, Xianyuan Zhan, Jingjing Liu
tl;dr: We propose a safe offline RL method that considers hard safety constraint with superior safety performance and stability.
Safe offline reinforcement learning is a promising way to bypass risky online interactions towards safe policy learning. Most existing methods only enforce soft constraints, i.e., constraining safety violations in expectation below thresholds predetermined. This can lead to potentially unsafe outcomes, thus unacceptable in safety-critical scenarios. An alternative is to enforce the hard constraint of zero violation. However, this can be challenging in offline setting, as it needs to strike the right balance among three highly intricate and correlated aspects: safety constraint satisfaction, reward maximization, and behavior regularization imposed by offline datasets. Interestingly, we discover that via reachability analysis of safe-control theory, the hard safety constraint can be equivalently translated to identifying the largest feasible region given the offline dataset. This seamlessly converts the original trilogy problem to a feasibility-dependent objective, i.e., maximizing reward value within the feasible region while minimizing safety risks in the infeasible region. Inspired by these, we propose FISOR (FeasIbility-guided Safe Offline RL), which allows safety constraint adherence, reward maximization, and offline policy learning to be realized via three decoupled processes, while offering strong safety performance and stability. In FISOR, the optimal policy for the translated optimization problem can be derived in a special form of weighted behavior cloning, which can be effectively extracted with a guided diffusion model thanks to its expressiveness. We compare FISOR against baselines on DSRL benchmark for safe offline RL. Evaluation results show that FISOR is the only method that can guarantee safety satisfaction in all tasks, while achieving top returns in most tasks. Code: https://github.com/ZhengYinan-AIR/FISOR.
Erik Schultheis, Wojciech Kotlowski, Marek Wydmuch, Rohit Babbar, Strom Borman, Krzysztof Dembczynski
We consider the optimization of complex performance metrics in multi-label classification under the population utility framework. We mainly focus on metrics linearly decomposable into a sum of binary classification utilities applied separately to each label with an additional requirement of exactly $k$ labels predicted for each instance. These ``macro-at-$k$'' metrics possess desired properties for extreme classification problems with long tail labels. Unfortunately, the at-$k$ constraint couples the otherwise independent binary classification tasks, leading to a much more challenging optimization problem than standard macro-averages. We provide a statistical framework to study this problem, prove the existence and the form of the optimal classifier, and propose a statistically consistent and practical learning algorithm based on the Frank-Wolfe method. Interestingly, our main results concern even more general metrics being non-linear functions of label-wise confusion matrices. Empirical results provide evidence for the competitive performance of the proposed approach.
Cong Zhang, Zhiguang Cao, Wen Song, Yaoxin Wu, Jie Zhang
Recent studies in using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to solve Job-shop scheduling problems (JSSP) focus on construction heuristics. However, their performance is still far from optimality, mainly because the underlying graph representation scheme is unsuitable for modelling partial solutions at each construction step. This paper proposes a novel DRL-guided improvement heuristic for solving JSSP, where graph representation is employed to encode complete solutions. We design a Graph-Neural-Network-based representation scheme, consisting of two modules to effectively capture the information of dynamic topology and different types of nodes in graphs encountered during the improvement process. To speed up solution evaluation during improvement, we present a novel message-passing mechanism that can evaluate multiple solutions simultaneously. We prove that the computational complexity of our method scales linearly with problem size. Experiments on classic benchmarks show that the improvement policy learned by our method outperforms state-of-the-art DRL-based methods by a large margin.
Junyuan Hong, Jiachen T. Wang, Chenhui Zhang, Zhangheng LI, Bo Li, Zhangyang Wang
tl;dr: DP-OPT is the first end-to-end solution that makes local LLMs use local private data to engineer privacy-preserving prompts.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as dominant tools for various tasks, particularly when tailored for a specific target by prompt tuning. Nevertheless, concerns surrounding data privacy present obstacles due to the tuned prompts' dependency on sensitive private information. A practical solution is to host a local LLM and optimize a soft prompt privately using data. Yet, hosting a local model becomes problematic when model ownership is protected. Alternative methods, like sending data to the model's provider for training, intensify these privacy issues facing an untrusted provider. In this paper, we present a novel solution called Differentially-Private Offsite Prompt Tuning (DP-OPT) to address this challenge. Our approach involves tuning a discrete prompt on the client side and then applying it to the desired cloud models. We demonstrate that prompts suggested by LLMs themselves can be transferred without compromising performance significantly. To ensure that the prompts do not leak private information, we introduce the first private prompt generation mechanism, by a differentially-private (DP) ensemble of in-context learning with private demonstrations. With DP-OPT, generating privacy-preserving prompts by Vicuna-7b can yield competitive performance compared to non-private in-context learning on GPT3.5 or local private prompt tuning. Codes are available at https://github.com/VITA-Group/DP-OPT.
Joan Puigcerver, Carlos Riquelme Ruiz, Basil Mustafa, Neil Houlsby
tl;dr: Soft MoEs outperform Transformers and Sparse MoEs in computer vision.
Sparse mixture of expert architectures (MoEs) scale model capacity without significant increases in training or inference costs. Despite their success, MoEs suffer from a number of issues: training instability, token dropping, inability to scale the number of experts, or ineffective finetuning. In this work, we propose Soft MoE, a fully-differentiable sparse Transformer that addresses these challenges, while maintaining the benefits of MoEs. Soft MoE performs an implicit soft assignment by passing different weighted combinations of all input tokens to each expert. As in other MoEs, experts in Soft MoE only process a subset of the (combined) tokens, enabling larger model capacity (and performance) at lower inference cost. In the context of visual recognition, Soft MoE greatly outperforms dense Transformers (ViTs) and popular MoEs (Tokens Choice and Experts Choice). Soft MoE scales well: Soft MoE Huge/14 with 128 experts in 16 MoE layers has over 40x more parameters than ViT Huge/14, with only 2% increased inference time, and substantially better quality.
Khai Nguyen, Nicola Bariletto, Nhat Ho
tl;dr: We propose Quasi-Sliced Wasserstein and Randomized Quasi-Sliced Wasserstein which are new approximation methods for Sliced Wasserstein distance based on Quasi-Monte Carlo methods.
Monte Carlo (MC) integration has been employed as the standard approximation method for the Sliced Wasserstein (SW) distance, whose analytical expression involves an intractable expectation. However, MC integration is not optimal in terms of absolute approximation error. To provide a better class of empirical SW, we propose quasi-sliced Wasserstein (QSW) approximations that rely on Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. For a comprehensive investigation of QMC for SW, we focus on the 3D setting, specifically computing the SW between probability measures in three dimensions. In greater detail, we empirically evaluate various methods to construct QMC point sets on the 3D unit-hypersphere, including the Gaussian-based and equal area mappings, generalized spiral points, and optimizing discrepancy energies. Furthermore, to obtain an unbiased estimator for stochastic optimization, we extend QSW to Randomized Quasi-Sliced Wasserstein (RQSW) by introducing randomness in the discussed point sets. Theoretically, we prove the asymptotic convergence of QSW and the unbiasedness of RQSW. Finally, we conduct experiments on various 3D tasks, such as point-cloud comparison, point-cloud interpolation, image style transfer, and training deep point-cloud autoencoders, to demonstrate the favorable performance of the proposed QSW and RQSW variants.
Dan Haramati, Tal Daniel, Aviv Tamar
tl;dr: We introduce a structured visual goal-conditioned RL approach for multi-object manipulation, showcasing agents that generalize from 3 to over 10 objects.
Manipulating objects is a hallmark of human intelligence, and an important task in domains such as robotics. In principle, Reinforcement Learning (RL) offers a general approach to learn object manipulation. In practice, however, domains with more than a few objects are difficult for RL agents due to the curse of dimensionality, especially when learning from raw image observations. In this work we propose a structured approach for visual RL that is suitable for representing multiple objects and their interaction, and use it to learn goal-conditioned manipulation of several objects. Key to our method is the ability to handle goals with dependencies between the objects (e.g., moving objects in a certain order). We further relate our architecture to the generalization capability of the trained agent, and demonstrate agents that learn with 3 objects but generalize to similar tasks with over 10 objects. Rollout videos are available on our website: https://sites.google.com/view/entity-centric-rl
Zhantao Yang, Ruili Feng, Han Zhang, Yujun Shen, Kai Zhu, Lianghua Huang, Yifei Zhang, Yu Liu, Deli Zhao, Jingren Zhou, Fan Cheng
tl;dr: We theoretically prove and empirically observe the presence of infinite Lipschitz constants near the zero point, and propose a simple but effective approach to address this challenge.
Diffusion models, which employ stochastic differential equations to sample images through integrals, have emerged as a dominant class of generative models. However, the rationality of the diffusion process itself receives limited attention, leaving the question of whether the problem is well-posed and well-conditioned. In this paper, we uncover a vexing propensity of diffusion models: they frequently exhibit the infinite Lipschitz near the zero point of timesteps. We provide theoretical proofs to illustrate the presence of infinite Lipschitz constants and empirical results to confirm it. The Lipschitz singularities pose a threat to the stability and accuracy during both the training and inference processes of diffusion models. Therefore, the mitigation of Lipschitz singularities holds great potential for enhancing the performance of diffusion models. To address this challenge, we propose a novel approach, dubbed E-TSDM, which alleviates the Lipschitz singularities of the diffusion model near the zero point. Remarkably, our technique yields a substantial improvement in performance. Moreover, as a byproduct of our method, we achieve a dramatic reduction in the Fréchet Inception Distance of acceleration methods relying on network Lipschitz, including DDIM and DPM-Solver, by over 33\%. Extensive experiments on diverse datasets validate our theory and method. Our work may advance the understanding of the general diffusion process, and also provide insights for the design of diffusion models.
Ainaz Eftekhar, Kuo-Hao Zeng, Jiafei Duan, Ali Farhadi, Aniruddha Kembhavi, Ranjay Krishna
Embodied AI models often employ off the shelf vision backbones like CLIP to encode their visual observations. Although such general purpose representations encode rich syntactic and semantic information about the scene, much of this information is often irrelevant to the specific task at hand. This introduces noise within the learning process and distracts the agent's focus from task-relevant visual cues. Inspired by selective attention in humans—the process through which people filter their perception based on their experiences, knowledge, and the task at hand—we introduce a parameter-efficient approach to filter visual stimuli for embodied AI. Our approach induces a task-conditioned bottleneck using a small learnable codebook module. This codebook is trained jointly to optimize task reward and acts as a task-conditioned selective filter over the visual observation. Our experiments showcase state-of-the-art performance for object goal navigation and object displacement across $5$ benchmarks, ProcTHOR, ArchitecTHOR, RoboTHOR, AI2-iTHOR, and ManipulaTHOR. The filtered representations produced by the codebook are also able generalize better and converge faster when adapted to other simulation environments such as Habitat. Our qualitative analyses show that agents explore their environments more effectively and their representations retain task-relevant information like target object recognition while ignoring superfluous information about other objects.
Fuxiao Liu, Kevin Lin, Linjie Li, Jianfeng Wang, Yaser Yacoob, Lijuan Wang
Despite the promising progress in multi-modal tasks, current large multi-modal models (LMMs) are prone to hallucinating inconsistent descriptions with respect to the associated image and human instructions. This paper addresses this issue by introducing the first large and diverse visual instruction tuning dataset, named Large-scale Robust Visual (LRV)-Instruction. Our dataset comprises 400k visual instructions generated by GPT4, covering 16 vision-and-language tasks with open-ended instructions and answers. Unlike existing studies that primarily focus on positive instruction samples, we design LRV-Instruction to include both positive and negative instructions for more robust visual instruction tuning. Our negative instructions are designed at three semantic levels: (i) Nonexistent Object Manipulation, (ii) Existent Object Manipulation and (iii) Knowledge Manipulation. To efficiently measure the hallucination generated by LMMs, we propose GPT4-Assisted Visual Instruction Evaluation (GAVIE), a stable approach to evaluate visual instruction tuning like human experts. GAVIE does not require human-annotated groundtruth answers and can adapt to diverse instruction formats. We conduct comprehensive experiments to investigate the hallucination of LMMs. Our results demonstrate existing LMMs exhibit significant hallucinations when presented with our negative instructions, particularly Existent Object and Knowledge Manipulation instructions. Moreover, we successfully mitigate hallucination by finetuning MiniGPT4 and mPLUG-Owl on LRV-Instruction while improving performance on several public datasets compared to state-of-the-art methods. Additionally, we observed that a balanced ratio of positive and negative instances in the training data leads to a more robust model. Code and data will be released upon publication.
Haiming Wang, Huajian Xin, Chuanyang Zheng, Zhengying Liu, Qingxing Cao, Yinya Huang, Jing Xiong, Han Shi, Enze Xie, Jian Yin, Zhenguo Li, Xiaodan Liang
Despite the success of large language models (LLMs), the task of theorem proving still remains one of the hardest reasoning tasks that is far from being fully solved. Prior methods using language models have demonstrated promising results, but they still struggle to prove even middle school level theorems. One common limitation of these methods is that they assume a fixed theorem library during the whole theorem proving process. However, as we all know, creating new useful theorems or even new theories is not only helpful but crucial and necessary for advancing mathematics and proving harder and deeper results. In this work, we present LEGO-Prover, which employs a growing skill library containing verified lemmas as skills to augment the capability of LLMs used in theorem proving. By constructing the proof modularly, LEGO-Prover enables LLMs to utilize existing skills retrieved from the library and to create new skills during the proving process. These skills are further evolved (by prompting an LLM) to enrich the library on another scale. Modular and reusable skills are constantly added to the library to enable tackling increasingly intricate mathematical problems. Moreover, the learned library further bridges the gap between human proofs and formal proofs by making it easier to impute missing steps. LEGO-Prover advances the state-of-the-art pass rate on miniF2F-valid (48.0\% to 57.0\%) and miniF2F-test (45.5\% to 50.0\%). During the proving process, LEGO-Prover also generates over 20,000 skills (theorems/lemmas) and adds them to the growing library. Our ablation study indicates that these newly added skills are indeed helpful for proving theorems, resulting in a 4.9\% improvement in success rate
Haoheng Lan, Jindong Gu, Philip Torr, Hengshuang Zhao
When a small number of poisoned samples are injected into the training dataset of a deep neural network, the network can be induced to exhibit malicious behavior during inferences, which poses potential threats to real-world applications. While they have been intensively studied in classification, backdoor attacks on semantic segmentation have been largely overlooked. Unlike classification, semantic segmentation aims to classify every pixel within a given image. In this work, we explore backdoor attacks on segmentation models to misclassify all pixels of a victim class by injecting a specific trigger on non-victim pixels during inferences, which is dubbed Influencer Backdoor Attack (IBA). IBA is expected to maintain the classification accuracy of non-victim pixels and mislead classifications of all victim pixels in every single inference and could be easily applied to real-world scenes. Based on the context aggregation ability of segmentation models, we proposed a simple, yet effective, Nearest-Neighbor trigger injection strategy. We also introduce an innovative Pixel Random Labeling strategy which maintains optimal performance even when the trigger is placed far from the victim pixels. Our extensive experiments reveal that current segmentation models do suffer from backdoor attacks, demonstrate IBA real-world applicability, and show that our proposed techniques can further increase attack performance.
Yameng Peng, Andy Song, Haytham M. Fayek, Vic Ciesielski, Xiaojun Chang
Training-free metrics (a.k.a. zero-cost proxies) are widely used to avoid resource-intensive neural network training, especially in Neural Architecture Search (NAS). Recent studies show that existing training-free metrics have several limitations, such as limited correlation and poor generalisation across different search spaces and tasks. Hence, we propose Sample-Wise Activation Patterns and its derivative, SWAP-Score, a novel high-performance training-free metric. It measures the expressivity of networks over a batch of input samples. The SWAP-Score is strongly correlated with ground-truth performance across various search spaces and tasks, outperforming 15 existing training-free metrics on NAS-Bench-101/201/301 and TransNAS-Bench-101. The SWAP-Score can be further enhanced by regularisation, which leads to even higher correlations in cell-based search space and enables model size control during the search. For example, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between regularised SWAP-Score and CIFAR-100 validation accuracies on NAS-Bench-201 networks is 0.90, significantly higher than 0.80 from the second-best metric, NWOT. When integrated with an evolutionary algorithm for NAS, our SWAP-NAS achieves competitive performance on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet in approximately 6 minutes and 9 minutes of GPU time respectively.
Thomas TCK Zhang, Leonardo Felipe Toso, James Anderson, Nikolai Matni
tl;dr: Existing representation learning methods induce biases even in linear settings, which throttle sample-efficiency in learning over many tasks. We propose a fix..
A powerful concept behind much of the recent progress in machine learning is the extraction of common features across data from heterogeneous sources or tasks. Intuitively, using all of one's data to learn a common representation function benefits both computational effort and statistical generalization by leaving a smaller number of parameters to fine-tune on a given task. Toward theoretically grounding these merits, we propose a general setting of recovering linear operators $M$ from noisy vector measurements $y = Mx + w$, where the covariates $x$ may be both non-i.i.d. and non-isotropic. We demonstrate that existing isotropy-agnostic meta-learning approaches incur biases on the representation update, which causes the scaling of the noise terms to lose favorable dependence on the number of source tasks. This in turn can cause the sample complexity of representation learning to be bottlenecked by the single-task data size. We introduce an adaptation, $\texttt{De-bias}$ & $\texttt{Feature-Whiten}$ ($\texttt{DFW}$), of the popular alternating minimization-descent (AMD) scheme proposed in Collins et al., (2021), and establish linear convergence to the optimal representation with noise level scaling down with the $\textit{total}$ source data size. This leads to generalization bounds on the same order as an oracle empirical risk minimizer. We verify the vital importance of $\texttt{DFW}$ on various numerical simulations. In particular, we show that vanilla alternating-minimization descent fails catastrophically even for iid, but mildly non-isotropic data. Our analysis unifies and generalizes prior work, and provides a flexible framework for a wider range of applications, such as in controls and dynamical systems.
Zhiyu Mei, Wei Fu, Jiaxuan Gao, Guangju Wang, Huanchen Zhang, Yi Wu
tl;dr: We develop a distributed RL system allowing massively parallelized training and easy development of customized algorithms.
The ever-growing complexity of reinforcement learning (RL) tasks demands a distributed system to efficiently generate and process a massive amount of data. However, existing open-source libraries suffer from various limitations, which impede their practical use in challenging scenarios where large-scale training is necessary. In this paper, we present a novel abstraction on the dataflows of RL training, which unifies diverse RL training applications into a general framework. Following this abstraction, we develop a scalable, efficient, and extensible distributed RL system called ReaLly Scalable RL (SRL), which allows efficient and massively parallelized training and easy development of customized algorithms. Our evaluation shows that SRL outperforms existing academic libraries, reaching at most 21x higher training throughput in a distributed setting. On learning performance, beyond performing and scaling well on common RL benchmarks with different RL algorithms, SRL can reproduce the same solution in the challenging hide-and-seek environment as reported by OpenAI with up to 5x speedup in wallclock time. Notably, SRL is the first in the academic community to perform RL experiments at a large scale with over 15k CPU cores. SRL anonymous repository is available at: https://anonymous.4open.science/r/srl-1E45/.
William Merrill, Ashish Sabharwal
tl;dr: We consider the expressive power of chain-of-thought transformers with different length reasoning chains, characterizing the additional reasoning power gained as a function of the length of the chain.
Recent theoretical work has identified surprisingly simple reasoning problems, such as checking if two nodes in a graph are connected or simulating finite-state machines, that are provably unsolvable by standard transformers that answer immediately after reading their input. However, in practice, transformers' reasoning can be improved by allowing them to use a "chain of thought" or "scratchpad", i.e., generate and condition on a sequence of intermediate tokens before answering. Motivated by this, we ask: *Does such intermediate generation fundamentally extend the computational power of a decoder-only transformer?* We show that the answer is *yes*, but the amount of increase depends crucially on the amount of intermediate generation. For instance, we find that transformer decoders with a logarithmic number of decoding steps (w.r.t. the input length) push the limits of standard transformers only slightly, while a linear number of decoding steps adds a clear new ability (under standard complexity conjectures): recognizing all regular languages. Our results also imply that linear steps keep transformer decoders within context-sensitive languages, and polynomial steps make them recognize exactly the class of polynomial-time solvable problems---the first exact characterization of a type of transformers in terms of standard complexity classes. Together, our results provide a nuanced framework for understanding how the length of a transformer’s chain of thought or scratchpad impacts its reasoning power.
Jake Grigsby, Linxi Fan, Yuke Zhu
We introduce AMAGO, an in-context Reinforcement Learning (RL) agent that uses sequence models to tackle the challenges of generalization, long-term memory, and meta-learning. Recent works have shown that off-policy learning can make in-context RL with recurrent policies viable. Nonetheless, these approaches require extensive tuning and limit scalability by creating key bottlenecks in agents' memory capacity, planning horizon, and model size. AMAGO revisits and redesigns the off-policy in-context approach to successfully train long-sequence Transformers over entire rollouts in parallel with end-to-end RL. Our agent is scalable and applicable to a wide range of problems, and we demonstrate its strong performance empirically in meta-RL and long-term memory domains. AMAGO's focus on sparse rewards and off-policy data also allows in-context learning to extend to goal-conditioned problems with challenging exploration. When combined with a multi-goal hindsight relabeling scheme, AMAGO can solve a previously difficult category of open-world domains, where agents complete many possible instructions in procedurally generated environments.
Yijue Dai, Wenzhong Yan, Feng Yin
Integrating information while recognizing dependence from multiple data sources and enhancing the predictive performance of the multi-output regression are challenging tasks. Multioutput Gaussian Process (MOGP) methods offer outstanding solutions with tractable predictions and uncertainty quantification. However, their practical applications are hindered by high computational complexity and storage demand. Additionally, there exist model mismatches in existing MOGP models when dealing with non-Gaussian data. To improve the model representation ability in terms of flexibility, optimality, and scalability, this paper introduces a novel multi-output regression framework, termed Graphical MOGP (GMOGP), which is empowered by: (i) generating flexible Gaussian process priors consolidated from identified parents, (ii) providing dependent processes with attention-based graphical representations, and (iii) achieving Pareto optimal solutions via a distributed learning framework. Numerical results confirm that the proposed GMOGP significantly outperforms state-of-the-art MOGP alternatives in predictive performance, as well as in time and memory efficiency, across various synthetic and real datasets. Our code and datasets are available at https://anonymous.4open.science/r/GMOGP-5ED3/.
Cheng Han, Qifan Wang, Yiming Cui, Wenguan Wang, Lifu Huang, Siyuan Qi, Dongfang Liu
As the scale of vision models continues to grow, the emergence of Visual Prompt Tuning (VPT) as a parameter-efficient transfer learning technique has gained attention due to its superior performance compared to traditional full-finetuning. However, the conditions favoring VPT (the "when") and the underlying rationale (the "why") remain unclear. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive analysis across 19 distinct datasets and tasks. To understand the "when" aspect, we identify the scenarios where VPT proves favorable by two dimensions: task objectives and data distributions. We find that VPT is preferrable when there is 1) a substantial disparity between the original and the downstream task objectives ($e.g.$, transitioning from classification to counting), or 2) a notable similarity in data distributions between the two tasks ($e.g.$, both involve natural images). In exploring the "why" dimension, our results indicate VPT's success cannot be attributed solely to overfitting and optimization considerations. The unique way VPT preserves original features and adds parameters appears to be a pivotal factor. Our study provides insights into VPT's mechanisms, and offers guidance for its optimal utilization.
Yanbang Wang, Jon Kleinberg
tl;dr: We study the implications and remediations of the modeling choice to use a graph, instead of a hypergraph, to represent real-world complex systems whose relationships are of higher order by nature.
We study the implications of the modeling choice to use a graph, instead of a hypergraph, to represent real-world interconnected systems whose constituent relationships are of higher order by nature. Such a modeling choice typically involves an underlying projection process that maps the original hypergraph onto a graph, and is prevalent in graph-based analysis. While hypergraph projection can potentially lead to loss of higher-order relations, there exists very limited studies on the consequences of doing so, as well as its remediation. This work fills this gap by doing two things: (1) we develop analysis based on graph and set theory, showing two ubiquitous patterns of hyperedges that are root to structural information loss in all hypergraph projections; we also quantify the combinatorial impossibility of recovering the lost higher-order structures if no extra help is provided; (2) we still seek to recover the lost higher-order structures in hypergraph projection, and in light of (1)'s findings we make reasonable assumptions to allow the help of some prior knowledge of the application domain. Under this problem setting, we develop a learning-based hypergraph reconstruction method based on an important statistic of hyperedge distributions that we find. Our reconstruction method is systematically evaluated on 8 real-world datasets under different settings, and exhibits consistently top performance. We also demonstrate benefits of the reconstructed hypergraphs through use cases of protein rankings and link predictions.
Haolin Liu, Chen-Yu Wei, Julian Zimmert
tl;dr: We study online reinformencent learning in adversarial linear MDPs, proposing the first rate-optimal inefficent algorithm and an efficient algorithm that significantly improves prior results.
We study online reinforcement learning in linear Markov decision processes with adversarial losses and bandit feedback. We introduce two algorithms that achieve improved regret performance compared to existing approaches. The first algorithm, although computationally inefficient, achieves a regret of $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{K})$ without relying on simulators, where $K$ is the number of episodes. This is the first rate-optimal result in the considered setting. The second algorithm is computationally efficient and achieves a regret of $\widetilde{O}(K^{\frac{3}{4}})$ . These results significantly improve over the prior state-of-the-art: a computationally inefficient algorithm by Kong et al. (2023) with $\widetilde{O}(K^{\frac{4}{5}}+1/\lambda_{\min})$ regret, and a computationally efficient algorithm by Sherman et al. (2023b) with $\widetilde{O}(K^{\frac{6}{7}})$ regret.
Lazar Valkov, Akash Srivastava, Swarat Chaudhuri, Charles Sutton
tl;dr: We use probabilistic modelling over pre-trained modules and the data to speed up modular continual learning.
Modular approaches that use a different composition of modules for each problem are a promising direction in continual learning (CL). However, searching through the large, discrete space of module compositions is challenging, especially because evaluating a composition’s performance requires a round of neural network training. We address this challenge through a modular CL framework, PICLE, that uses a probabilistic model to cheaply compute the fitness of each composition, allowing PICLE to achieve both perceptual, few-shot and latent transfer. The model combines prior knowledge about good module compositions with dataset-specific information. We evaluate PICLE using two benchmark suites designed to assess different desiderata of CL techniques. Comparing to a wide range of approaches, we show that PICLE is the first modular CL algorithm to achieve perceptual, few-shot and latent transfer while scaling well to large search spaces, outperforming previous state-of-the-art modular CL approaches on long problem sequences.
Zheng Chen, Yulun Zhang, Jinjin Gu, Linghe Kong, Xiaokang Yang
tl;dr: Recursive Generalization Transformer for Image Super-Resolution
Transformer architectures have exhibited remarkable performance in image super-resolution (SR). Since the quadratic computational complexity of the self-attention (SA) in Transformer, existing methods tend to adopt SA in a local region to reduce overheads. However, the local design restricts the global context exploitation, which is crucial for accurate image reconstruction. In this work, we propose the Recursive Generalization Transformer (RGT) for image SR, which can capture global spatial information and is suitable for high-resolution images. Specifically, we propose the recursive-generalization self-attention (RG-SA). It recursively aggregates input features into representative feature maps, and then utilizes cross-attention to extract global information. Meanwhile, the channel dimensions of attention matrices ($query$, $key$, and $value$) are further scaled to mitigate the redundancy in the channel domain. Furthermore, we combine the RG-SA with local self-attention to enhance the exploitation of the global context, and propose the hybrid adaptive integration (HAI) for module integration. The HAI allows the direct and effective fusion between features at different levels (local or global). Extensive experiments demonstrate that our RGT outperforms recent state-of-the-art methods quantitatively and qualitatively. Code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/zhengchen1999/RGT.
Matteo Pirotta, Andrea Tirinzoni, Ahmed Touati, Alessandro Lazaric, Yann Ollivier
Imitation learning (IL) aims at producing agents that can imitate any behavior given a few expert demonstrations. Yet existing approaches require many demonstrations and/or running (online or offline) reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms for each new imitation task. Here we show that recent RL foundation models based on successor measures can imitate any expert behavior almost instantly with just a few demonstrations and no need for RL or fine-tuning, while accommodating several IL principles (behavioral cloning, feature matching, reward-based, and goal-based reductions). In our experiments, imitation via RL foundation models matches, and often surpasses, the performance of SOTA offline IL algorithms, and produces imitation policies from new demonstrations within seconds instead of hours.
Po-Chen Ko, Jiayuan Mao, Yilun Du, Shao-Hua Sun, Joshua B. Tenenbaum
tl;dr: We developed a robot policy using images, eliminating action annotations. It's trained on RGB videos, effective for table-top tasks and navigation. Our framework allows rapid modeling with just 4 GPUs in a day.
In this work, we present an approach to construct a video-based robot policy capable of reliably executing diverse tasks across different robots and environments from few video demonstrations without using any action annotations. Our method leverages images as a task-agnostic representation, encoding both the state and action information, and text as a general representation for specifying robot goals. By synthesizing videos that “hallucinate” robot executing actions and in combination with dense correspondences between frames, our approach can infer the closed-formed action to execute to an environment without the need of any explicit action labels. This unique capability allows us to train the policy solely based on RGB videos and deploy learned policies to various robotic tasks. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in learning policies on table-top manipulation and navigation tasks. Additionally, we contribute an open-source framework for efficient video modeling, enabling the training of high-fidelity policy models with four GPUs within a single day.
Sadegh Mahdavi, Renjie Liao, Christos Thrampoulidis
tl;dr: We propose a lower bound for the memorization capacity of multi-head attention in Transformers
Transformers have become the go-to architecture for language and vision tasks, yet their theoretical properties, especially memorization capacity, remain elusive. This paper investigates the memorization abilities of multi-head attention mechanisms, examining how many example sequences they can memorize, as a function of the number of heads and sequence length. Motivated by experimental findings on vision transformers, we introduce novel assumptions about the linear independence of input data, distinct from the commonly used general-position assumption. Under these assumptions, we demonstrate that an attention layer with $H$ heads, dimension $d$, and context size $n < d,$ featuring $\Theta(Hd^2)$ parameters, can memorize $\Omega(Hn)$ examples. Our analysis sheds light on how different attention heads handle various example sequences, aided by the softmax operator’s saturation property. We validate our findings through experiments on synthetic data.
Vaidehi Patil, Peter Hase, Mohit Bansal
Pretrained language models sometimes possess knowledge that we do not wish them to, including memorized personal information and knowledge that could be used to harm people. They can also output toxic or harmful text. To mitigate these safety and informational issues, we propose an attack-and-defense framework for studying the task of deleting sensitive information directly from model weights. We study direct edits to model weights because (1) this approach should guarantee that particular deleted information is never extracted by future prompt attacks, and (2) it should protect against whitebox attacks, which is necessary for making claims about safety/privacy in a setting where publicly available model weights could be used to elicit sensitive information. Our threat model assumes that an attack succeeds if the answer to a sensitive question is located among a set of B generated candidates, based on scenarios where the information would be insecure if the answer is among B candidates. Experimentally, we show that even state-of-the-art model editing methods such as ROME struggle to truly delete factual information from models like GPT-J, as our whitebox and blackbox attacks can recover “deleted” information from an edited model 38% of the time. These attacks leverage two key observations: (1) that traces of deleted information can be found in intermediate model hidden states, and (2) that applying an editing method for one question may not delete information across rephrased versions of the question. Finally, we provide new defense methods that protect against some extraction attacks, but we do not find a single universally effective defense method. Our results suggest that truly deleting sensitive information is a tractable but difficult problem, since even relatively low attack success rates have potentially severe implications for the deployment of language models in a world where individuals enjoy ownership of their personal data, a right to privacy, and safety from harmful model outputs.
Akari Asai, Zeqiu Wu, Yizhong Wang, Avirup Sil, Hannaneh Hajishirzi
tl;dr: We introduce Self-RAG, a new training and inference framework to enable an LM learn to retrieve, generate and critique.
Despite their remarkable capabilities, large language models (LLMs) often produce responses containing factual inaccuracies due to their sole reliance on the parametric knowledge they encapsulate. Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG), an ad hoc approach that augments LMs with retrieval of relevant knowledge, decreases such issues. However, indiscriminately retrieving and incorporating a fixed number of retrieved passages, regardless of whether retrieval is necessary, or passages are relevant, diminishes LM versatility or can lead to unhelpful response generation. We introduce a new framework called **Self-Reflective Retrieval-Augmented Generation (Self-RAG)** that enhances an LM's quality and factuality through retrieval and self-reflection. Our framework trains a single arbitrary LM that adaptively retrieves passages on-demand, and generates and reflects on retrieved passages and its generations using special tokens, called {\it reflection} tokens. Generating reflection tokens makes the LM controllable during the inference phase, enabling it to tailor its behavior to diverse task requirements. Experiments show that Self-RAG (7B and 13B parameters) significantly outperforms state-of-the-art LLMs and retrieval-augmented models on a diverse set of tasks. Specifically, Self-RAG outperforms ChatGPT and retrieval-augmented Llama2-chat on Open-domain QA, reasoning, and fact verification tasks, and it shows significant gains in improving factuality and citation accuracy for long-form generations relative to these models. Our code and trained models are available at https://selfrag.github.io/
Samuel Pegg, Kai Li, Xiaolin Hu
Audio-visual speech separation methods aim to integrate different modalities to generate high-quality separated speech, thereby enhancing the performance of downstream tasks such as speech recognition. Most existing state-of-the-art (SOTA) models operate in the time domain. However, their overly simplistic approach to modeling acoustic features often necessitates larger and more computationally intensive models in order to achieve SOTA performance. In this paper, we present a novel time-frequency domain audio-visual speech separation method: Recurrent Time-Frequency Separation Network (RTFS-Net), which applies its algorithms on the complex time-frequency bins yielded by the Short-Time Fourier Transform. We model and capture the time and frequency dimensions of the audio independently using a multi-layered RNN along each dimension. Furthermore, we introduce a unique attention-based fusion technique for the efficient integration of audio and visual information, and a new mask separation approach that takes advantage of the intrinsic spectral nature of the acoustic features for a clearer separation. RTFS-Net outperforms the prior SOTA method in both inference speed and separation quality while reducing the number of parameters by 90% and MACs by 83%. This is the first time-frequency domain audio-visual speech separation method to outperform all contemporary time-domain counterparts.
Dinghuai Zhang, Ricky T. Q. Chen, Cheng-Hao Liu, Aaron Courville, Yoshua Bengio
tl;dr: DGFS is an algorithm which learns a stochastic process to sample from unnormalized densities, and can update parameters without full specification of diffusion chains.
We tackle the problem of sampling from intractable high-dimensional density functions, a fundamental task that often appears in machine learning and statistics. We extend recent sampling-based approaches that leverage controlled stochastic processes to model approximate samples from these target densities. The main drawback of these approaches is that the training objective requires full trajectories to compute, resulting in sluggish credit assignment issues due to use of entire trajectories and a learning signal present only at the terminal time. In this work, we present Diffusion Generative Flow Samplers (DGFS), a sampling-based framework where the learning process can be tractably broken down into short partial trajectory segments, via parameterizing an additional ``flow function''. Our method takes inspiration from the theory developed for generative flow networks (GFlowNets), allowing us to make use of intermediate learning signals. Through various challenging experiments, we demonstrate that DGFS achieves more accurate estimates of the normalization constant than closely-related prior methods.
Guangxuan Xiao, Yuandong Tian, Beidi Chen, Song Han, Mike Lewis
tl;dr: We enable LLMs to work on infinite-length texts without compromising efficiency and performance.
Deploying Large Language Models (LLMs) in streaming applications such as multi-round dialogue, where long interactions are expected, is urgently needed but poses two major challenges. Firstly, during the decoding stage, caching previous tokens' Key and Value states (KV) consumes extensive memory. Secondly, popular LLMs cannot generalize to longer texts than the training sequence length. Window attention, where only the most recent KVs are cached, is a natural approach --- but we show that it fails when the text length surpasses the cache size. We observe an interesting phenomenon, namely attention sink, that keeping the KV of initial tokens will largely recover the performance of window attention. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the emergence of attention sink is due to the strong attention scores towards initial tokens as a ``sink'' even if they are not semantically important. Based on the above analysis, we introduce StreamingLLM, an efficient framework that enables LLMs trained with a finite length attention window to generalize to infinite sequence length without any fine-tuning. We show that StreamingLLM can enable Llama-2, MPT, Falcon, and Pythia to perform stable and efficient language modeling with up to 4 million tokens and more. In addition, we discover that adding a placeholder token as a dedicated attention sink during pre-training can further improve streaming deployment. In streaming settings, StreamingLLM outperforms the sliding window recomputation baseline by up to 22.2$\times$ speedup. Code and datasets are provided in the anonymous link.
Pascal Chang, Jingwei Tang, Markus Gross, Vinicius C. Azevedo
tl;dr: We propose a method to warp a Gaussian noise sample while keeping it Gaussian and apply it to diffusion models to help temporal coherency.
Video editing and generation methods often rely on pre-trained image-based diffusion models. During the diffusion process, however, the reliance on rudimentary noise sampling techniques that do not preserve correlations present in subsequent frames of a video is detrimental to the quality of the results. This either produces high-frequency flickering, or texture-sticking artifacts that are not amenable to post-processing. With this in mind, we propose a novel method for preserving temporal correlations in a sequence of noise samples. This approach is materialized by a novel noise representation, dubbed $\int$-noise (integral noise), that reinterprets individual noise samples as a continuously integrated noise field: pixel values do not represent discrete values, but are rather the integral of an underlying infinite-resolution noise over the pixel area. Additionally, we propose a carefully tailored transport method that uses $\int$-noise to accurately advect noise samples over a sequence of frames, maximizing the correlation between different frames while also preserving the noise properties. Our results demonstrate that the proposed $\int$-noise can be used for a variety of tasks, such as video restoration, surrogate rendering, and conditional video generation.
Noga Alon, Dmitrii Avdiukhin, Dor Elboim, Orr Fischer, Grigory Yaroslavtsev
tl;dr: We provide tight bounds on the sample complexity of contrastive learning in various settings, without any assumptions on the data distribution
Contrastive learning is a highly successful technique for learning representations of data from labeled tuples, specifying the distance relations within the tuple. We study the sample complexity of contrastive learning, i.e. the minimum number of labeled tuples sufficient for getting high generalization accuracy. We give tight bounds on the sample complexity in a variety of settings, focusing on arbitrary distance functions, $\ell_p$-distances, and tree metrics. Our main result is an (almost) optimal bound on the sample complexity of learning $\ell_p$-distances for integer $p$. For any $p \ge 1$, we show that $\tilde \Theta(nd)$ labeled tuples are necessary and sufficient for learning $d$-dimensional representations of $n$-point datasets. Our results hold for an arbitrary distribution of the input samples and are based on giving the corresponding bounds on the Vapnik-Chervonenkis/Natarajan dimension of the associated problems. We further show that the theoretical bounds on sample complexity obtained via VC/Natarajan dimension can have strong predictive power for experimental results, in contrast with the folklore belief about a substantial gap between the statistical learning theory and the practice of deep learning.
Seohong Park, Oleh Rybkin, Sergey Levine
Unsupervised pre-training strategies have proven to be highly effective in natural language processing and computer vision. Likewise, unsupervised reinforcement learning (RL) holds the promise of discovering a variety of potentially useful behaviors that can accelerate the learning of a wide array of downstream tasks. Previous unsupervised RL approaches have mainly focused on pure exploration and mutual information skill learning. However, despite the previous attempts, making unsupervised RL truly scalable still remains a major open challenge: pure exploration approaches might struggle in complex environments with large state spaces, where covering every possible transition is infeasible, and mutual information skill learning approaches might completely fail to explore the environment due to the lack of incentives. To make unsupervised RL scalable to complex, high-dimensional environments, we propose a novel unsupervised RL objective, which we call Metric-Aware Abstraction (METRA). Our main idea is, instead of directly covering the entire state space, to only cover a compact latent space $\mathcal{Z}$ that is metrically connected to the state space $\mathcal{S}$ by temporal distances. By learning to move in every direction in the latent space, METRA obtains a tractable set of diverse behaviors that approximately cover the state space, being scalable to high-dimensional environments. Through our experiments in five locomotion and manipulation environments, we demonstrate that METRA can discover a variety of useful behaviors even in complex, pixel-based environments, being the first unsupervised RL method that discovers diverse locomotion behaviors in pixel-based Quadruped and Humanoid. Our code and videos are available at https://seohong.me/projects/metra/
Yangming Li, Mihaela van der Schaar
tl;dr: We present a theoretical framework to explain why error propagation happens to diffusion models and a regularization to address this problem
Although diffusion models (DMs) have shown promising performances in a number of tasks (e.g., speech synthesis and image generation), they might suffer from error propagation because of their sequential structure. However, this is not certain because some sequential models, such as Conditional Random Field (CRF), are free from this problem. To address this issue, we develop a theoretical framework to mathematically formulate error propagation in the architecture of DMs, The framework contains three elements, including modular error, cumulative error, and propagation equation. The modular and cumulative errors are related by the equation, which interprets that DMs are indeed affected by error propagation. Our theoretical study also suggests that the cumulative error is closely related to the generation quality of DMs. Based on this finding, we apply the cumulative error as a regularization term to reduce error propagation. Because the term is computationally intractable, we derive its upper bound and design a bootstrap algorithm to efficiently estimate the bound for optimization. We have conducted extensive experiments on multiple image datasets, showing that our proposed regularization reduces error propagation, significantly improves vanilla DMs, and outperforms previous baselines.
Zhixuan Lin, Pierluca D'Oro, Evgenii Nikishin, Aaron Courville
tl;dr: We show that the off-policy learning challenge in ensemble-based exploration in deep RL can impair performance, provide extensive analysis, and show representation learning as a promising solution with a novel method CERL.
We uncover a surprising phenomenon in deep reinforcement learning: training a diverse ensemble of data-sharing agents -- a well-established exploration strategy -- can significantly impair the performance of the individual ensemble members when compared to standard single-agent training. Through careful analysis, we attribute the degradation in performance to the low proportion of self-generated data in the shared training data for each ensemble member, as well as the inefficiency of the individual ensemble members to learn from such highly off-policy data. We thus name this phenomenon *the curse of diversity*. We find that several intuitive solutions -- such as a larger replay buffer or a smaller ensemble size -- either fail to consistently mitigate the performance loss or undermine the advantages of ensembling. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of representation learning to counteract the curse of diversity with a novel method named Cross-Ensemble Representation Learning (CERL) in both discrete and continuous control domains. Our work offers valuable insights into an unexpected pitfall in ensemble-based exploration and raises important caveats for future applications of similar approaches.
Yang Yang, Wenhai Wang, Zhe Chen, Jifeng Dai, Liang Zheng
Bounding boxes uniquely characterize object detection, where a good detector gives accurate bounding boxes of categories of interest. However, in the real-world where test ground truths are not provided, it is non-trivial to find out whether bounding boxes are accurate, thus preventing us from assessing the detector generalization ability. In this work, we find under feature map dropout, good detectors tend to output bounding boxes whose locations do not change much, while bounding boxes of poor detectors will undergo noticeable position changes. We compute the box stability score (BS score) to reflect this stability. Specifically, given an image, we compute a normal set of bounding boxes and a second set after feature map dropout. To obtain BS score, we use bipartite matching to find the corresponding boxes between the two sets and compute the average Intersection over Union (IoU) across the entire test set. We contribute to finding that BS score has a strong, positive correlation with detection accuracy measured by mean average precision (mAP) under various test environments. This relationship allows us to predict the accuracy of detectors on various real-world test sets without accessing test ground truths, verified on canonical detection tasks such as vehicle detection and pedestrian detection.
Mirco Mutti, Riccardo De Santi, Marcello Restelli, Alexander Marx, Giorgia Ramponi
Posterior sampling allows the exploitation of prior knowledge of the environment's transition dynamics to improve the sample efficiency of reinforcement learning. The prior is typically specified as a class of parametric distributions, a task that can be cumbersome in practice, often resulting in the choice of uninformative priors. In this work, we propose a novel posterior sampling approach in which the prior is given as a (partial) causal graph over the environment's variables. The latter is often more natural to design, such as listing known causal dependencies between biometric features in a medical treatment study. Specifically, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian procedure, called C-PSRL, simultaneously learning the full causal graph at the higher level and the parameters of the resulting factored dynamics at the lower level. For this procedure, we provide an analysis of its Bayesian regret, which explicitly connects the regret rate with the degree of prior knowledge. Our numerical evaluation conducted in illustrative domains confirms that C-PSRL strongly improves the efficiency of posterior sampling with an uninformative prior while performing close to posterior sampling with the full causal graph.
Weida Li, Yaoliang Yu
The family of probabilistic values, axiomatically-grounded and proposed in cooperative game theory, has recently received much attention in data valuation. However, it is often computationally expensive to compute exactly (exponential w.r.t. $N$, the number of data being valuated). Existing generic estimators cost $O(\frac{N^2}{\epsilon^2}\log\frac{N}{\delta})$ utility evaluations to achieve an ($\epsilon$, $\delta$)-approximation under the 2-norm, while faster estimators have been developed recently for special cases (e.g., empirically for the Shapley value and theoretically for the Banzhaf value). In this work, based on a connection between probabilistic values and least square regressions, we propose two generic estimators for the whole family of probabilistic values that both cost $O(\frac{N}{\epsilon^2}\log\frac{N}{\delta})$ utility evaluations, largely extending the scope of this currently best complexity bound. Moreover, we show that each distributional value, proposed by Ghorbani et al. (2020) to alleviate the inconsistency of probabilistic values when using distinct databases, can also be cast as optimizing a similar least square regression. This observation makes it the first-time theoretically-grounded to train value estimators such that the distributional value of each unseen data point can be evaluated in a single forward pass. Our experiments verify the faster convergence of our proposed estimators, and demonstrate the effectiveness at learning distributional values.
Chengxing Jia, Chenxiao Gao, Hao Yin, Fuxiang Zhang, Xiong-Hui Chen, Tian Xu, Lei Yuan, Zongzhang Zhang, Yang Yu, Zhi-Hua Zhou
tl;dr: We introduce the idea of rehearsal into reinforcement learning in scenarios where both online and offline experiences are expensive and limited.
Human beings can make adaptive decisions in a preparatory manner, i.e., by making preparations in advance, which offers significant advantages in scenarios where both online and offline experiences are expensive and limited. Meanwhile, current reinforcement learning methods commonly rely on numerous environment interactions but hardly obtain generalizable policies. In this paper, we introduce the idea of \textit{rehearsal} into policy optimization, where the agent plans for all possible outcomes in mind and acts adaptively according to actual responses from the environment. To effectively rehearse, we propose ReDM, an algorithm that generates a diverse and eligible set of dynamics models and then rehearse the policy via adaptive training on the generated model set. Rehearsal enables the policy to make decision plans for various hypothetical dynamics and to naturally generalize to previously unseen environments. Our experimental results demonstrate that ReDM is capable of learning a valid policy solely through rehearsal, even with \emph{zero} interaction data. We further extend ReDM to scenarios where limited or mismatched interaction data is available, and our experimental results reveal that ReDM produces high-performing policies compared to other offline RL baselines.
Kun Wang, Hao Wu, Yifan Duan, Guibin Zhang, Kai Wang, Xiaojiang Peng, Yu Zheng, Yuxuan Liang, Yang Wang
tl;dr: In this paper, we establish a two-stage spatio-temporal causal concept, NuwaDynamics, which targets to identify causal regions in observe data and endow model with causal reasoning ability.
Spatio-temporal (ST) prediction plays a pivotal role in earth sciences, such as meteorological prediction, urban computing. Adequate high-quality data, coupled with deep models capable of inference, are both indispensable and prerequisite for achieving meaningful results. However, the sparsity of data and the high costs associated with deploying sensors lead to significant data imbalances. Models that are overly tailored and lack causal relationships further compromise the generalizabilities of inference methods. Towards this end, we first establish a causal concept for ST predictions, named NuwaDynamics, which targets to identify causal regions in data and endow model with causal reasoning ability in a two-stage process. Concretely, we initially leverage upstream self-supervision to discern causal important patches, imbuing the model with generalized information and conducting informed interventions on complementary trivial patches to extrapolate potential test distributions. This phase is referred to as the discovery step. Advancing beyond discovery step, we transfer the data to downstream tasks for targeted ST objectives, aiding the model in recognizing a broader potential distribution and fostering its causal perceptual capabilities (refer as Update step). Our concept aligns seamlessly with the contemporary backdoor adjustment mechanism in causality theory. Extensive experiments on six real-world ST benchmarks showcase that models can gain outcomes upon the integration of the NuwaDynamics concept. NuwaDynamics also can significantly benefit a wide range of changeable ST tasks like extreme weather and long temporal step super-resolution predictions.
Seong Jin Cho, Gwangsu Kim, Junghyun Lee, Jinwoo Shin, Chang D. Yoo
tl;dr: The uncertainty-based active learning algorithm that queries samples easily flip-flopped by a small perturbation of the decision boundary.
Active learning, a paradigm within machine learning, aims to select and query unlabeled data to enhance model performance strategically. A crucial selection strategy leverages the model's predictive uncertainty, reflecting the informativeness of a data point. While the sample's distance to the decision boundary intuitively measures predictive uncertainty, its computation becomes intractable for complex decision boundaries formed in multiclass classification tasks. This paper introduces the *least disagree metric* (LDM), the smallest probability of predicted label disagreement. We propose an asymptotically consistent estimator for LDM under mild assumptions. The estimator boasts computational efficiency and straightforward implementation for deep learning models using parameter perturbation. The LDM-based active learning algorithm queries unlabeled data with the smallest LDM, achieving state-of-the-art *overall* performance across various datasets and deep architectures, as demonstrated by the experimental results.
Sherry Yang, Yilun Du, Seyed Kamyar Seyed Ghasemipour, Jonathan Tompson, Leslie Pack Kaelbling, Dale Schuurmans, Pieter Abbeel
tl;dr: We learn an interactive real-world simulator from broad data rich in different axes that enables long-horizon interactions with humans, vision language models, and reinforcement learning agents.
Generative models trained on internet data have revolutionized how text, image, and video content can be created. Perhaps the next milestone for generative models is to simulate realistic experience in response to actions taken by humans, robots, and other interactive agents. Applications of a real-world simulator range from controllable content creation in games and movies, to training embodied agents purely in simulation that can be directly deployed in the real world. We explore the possibility of learning a universal simulator (UniSim) of real-world interaction through generative modeling. We first make the important observation that natural datasets available for learning a real-world simulator are often rich along different axes (e.g., abundant objects in image data, densely sampled actions in robotics data, and diverse movements in navigation data). With careful orchestration of diverse datasets, each providing a different aspect of the overall experience, UniSim can emulate how humans and agents interact with the world by simulating the visual outcome of both high-level instructions such as “open the drawer” and low-level controls such as “move by x,y” from otherwise static scenes and objects. There are numerous use cases for such a real-world simulator. As an example, we use UniSim to train both high-level vision-language planners and low-level reinforcement learning policies, each of which exhibit zero-shot real-world transfer after training purely in a learned real-world simulator. We also show that other types of intelligence such as video captioning models can benefit from training with simulated experience in UniSim, opening up even wider applications.
Bo Zhao, Robert M. Gower, Robin Walters, Rose Yu
tl;dr: We provide theoretical guarantees that teleportation accelerates the convergence rate, show that teleportation can be used to improve generalization, and integrate teleportation into various optimization algorithms such as meta-learning.
In overparametrized models, different values of the parameters may result in the same loss value. Parameter space symmetries are loss-invariant transformations that change the model parameters. Teleportation applies such transformations to accelerate optimization. However, the exact mechanism behind this algorithm's success is not well understood. In this paper, we show that teleportation not only speeds up optimization in the short-term, but gives overall faster time to convergence. Additionally, teleporting to minima with different curvatures improves generalization, which suggests a connection between the curvature of the minima and generalization ability. Finally, we show that integrating teleportation into a wide range of optimization algorithms and optimization-based meta-learning improves convergence. Our results showcase the versatility of teleportation and demonstrate the potential of incorporating symmetry in optimization.
Hongpeng Cao, Yanbing Mao, Lui Sha, Marco Caccamo
tl;dr: Physics-regulated DRL
This paper proposes the Phy-DRL: a physics-regulated deep reinforcement learning (DRL) framework for safety-critical autonomous systems. The Phy-DRL has three distinguished invariant-embedding designs: i) residual action policy (i.e., integrating data-driven-DRL action policy and physics-model-based action policy), ii) automatically constructed safety-embedded reward, and iii) physics-model-guided neural network (NN) editing, including link editing and activation editing. Theoretically, the Phy-DRL exhibits 1) a mathematically provable safety guarantee and 2) strict compliance of critic and actor networks with physics knowledge about the action-value function and action policy. Finally, we evaluate the Phy-DRL on a cart-pole system and a quadruped robot. The experiments validate our theoretical results and demonstrate that Phy-DRL features guaranteed safety compared to purely data-driven DRL and solely model-based design while offering remarkably fewer learning parameters and fast training towards safety guarantee.
Olga Fourkioti, Matt De Vries, Chris Bakal
tl;dr: We develop a multiple instance learning model for cancer detection and subtyping in whole slide images that leverages dependencies and imposis contextual constraints between tiles. This lead to state-of-the-art classification on two public datasets.
The visual examination of tissue biopsy sections is fundamental for cancer diagnosis, with pathologists analyzing sections at multiple magnifications to discern tumor cells and their subtypes. However, existing attention-based multiple instance learning (MIL) models, used for analyzing Whole Slide Images (WSIs) in cancer diagnostics, often overlook the contextual information of tumor and neighboring tiles, leading to misclassifications. To address this, we propose the Context-Aware Multiple Instance Learning (CAMIL) architecture. CAMIL incorporates neighbor-constrained attention to consider dependencies among tiles within a WSI and integrates contextual constraints as prior knowledge into the MIL model. We evaluated CAMIL on subtyping non-small cell lung cancer (TCGA-NSCLC) and detecting lymph node (CAMELYON16) metastasis, achieving test AUCs of 0.959\% and 0.975\%, respectively, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods. Additionally, CAMIL enhances model interpretability by identifying regions of high diagnostic value
Dominik Schmidt, Minqi Jiang
tl;dr: We introduce a fully unsupervised method for pre-training on action-free demonstrations to produce policies that can be quickly adapted to expert-level performance.
Pre-training large models on vast amounts of web data has proven to be an effective approach for obtaining powerful, general models in several domains, including language and vision. However, this paradigm has not yet taken hold in deep reinforcement learning (RL). This gap is due to the fact that the most abundant form of embodied behavioral data on the web consists of videos, which do not include the action labels required by existing methods for training policies from offline data. We introduce Latent Action Policies from Observation (LAPO), a method to infer latent actions and, consequently, latent-action policies purely from action-free demonstrations. Our experiments on challenging procedurally-generated environments show that LAPO can act as an effective pre-training method to obtain RL policies that can then be rapidly fine-tuned to expert-level performance. Our approach serves as a key stepping stone to enabling the pre-training of powerful, generalist RL models on the vast amounts of action-free demonstrations readily available on the web.
Liyuan Mao, Haoran Xu, Weinan Zhang, Xianyuan Zhan
tl;dr: A simple modification to DICE-based method could achieve SOTA performance and great robustness.
In this study, we investigate the DIstribution Correction Estimation (DICE) methods, an important line of work in offline reinforcement learning (RL) and imitation learning (IL). DICE-based methods impose state-action-level behavior constraint, which is an ideal choice for offline learning. However, they typically perform much worse than current state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods that solely use action-level behavior constraint. After revisiting DICE-based methods, we find there exist two gradient terms when learning the value function using true-gradient update: forward gradient (taken on the current state) and backward gradient (taken on the next state). Using forward gradient bears a large similarity to many offline RL methods, and thus can be regarded as applying action-level constraint. However, directly adding the backward gradient may degenerate or cancel out its effect if these two gradients have conflicting directions. To resolve this issue, we propose a simple yet effective modification that projects the backward gradient onto the normal plane of the forward gradient, resulting in an orthogonal-gradient update, a new learning rule for DICE-based methods. We conduct thorough theoretical analyses and find that the projected backward gradient brings state-level behavior regularization, which reveals the mystery of DICE-based methods: the value learning objective does try to impose state-action-level constraint, but needs to be used in a corrected way. Through toy examples and extensive experiments on complex offline RL and IL tasks, we demonstrate that DICE-based methods using orthogonal-gradient updates achieve SOTA performance and great robustness.
Pratik Patil, Daniel LeJeune
tl;dr: We show consistency of generalized cross-validation for tuning asymptotically free sketched ridge ensembles under mild data assumptions.
We employ random matrix theory to establish consistency of generalized cross validation (GCV) for estimating prediction risks of sketched ridge regression ensembles, enabling efficient and consistent tuning of regularization and sketching parameters. Our results hold for a broad class of asymptotically free sketches under very mild data assumptions. For squared prediction risk, we provide a decomposition into an unsketched equivalent implicit ridge bias and a sketching-based variance, and prove that the risk can be globally optimized by only tuning sketch size in infinite ensembles. For general subquadratic prediction risk functionals, we extend GCV to construct consistent risk estimators, and thereby obtain distributional convergence of the GCV-corrected predictions in Wasserstein-2 metric. This in particular allows construction of prediction intervals with asymptotically correct coverage conditional on the training data. We also propose an "ensemble trick" whereby the risk for unsketched ridge regression can be efficiently estimated via GCV using small sketched ridge ensembles. We empirically validate our theoretical results using both synthetic and real large-scale datasets with practical sketches including CountSketch and subsampled randomized discrete cosine transforms.
Weijia Shi, Sewon Min, Maria Lomeli, Chunting Zhou, Margaret Li, Xi Victoria Lin, Noah A. Smith, Luke Zettlemoyer, Wen-tau Yih, Mike Lewis
Language models are currently trained to predict tokens given document prefixes, enabling them to zero shot long form generation and prompting-style tasks which can be reduced to document completion. We instead present IN-CONTEXT PRETRAINING, a new approach where language models are trained on a sequence of related documents, thereby explicitly encouraging them to read and reason across document boundaries. Our approach builds on the fact that current pipelines train by concatenating random sets of shorter documents to create longer context windows; this improves efficiency even though the prior documents provide no signal for predicting the next document. Given this fact, we can do IN-CONTEXT PRETRAINING by simply changing the document ordering so that each context contains related documents, and directly applying existing pretraining pipelines. However, this document sorting problem is challenging. There are billions of documents and we would like the sort to maximize contextual similarity for every document without repeating any data. To do this, we introduce approximate algorithms for finding related documents with efficient nearest neighbor search and constructing coherent batches with a graph cover algorithm. Our experiments show IN-CONTEXT PRETRAINING offers a scalable and simple approach to significantly enhance LM performance: we see notable improvements in tasks that require more complex contextual reasoning, including in-context learning (+8%), reading comprehension (+15%), faithfulness to previous contexts (+16%), long-context reasoning (+5%), and retrieval augmentation (+9%).
Fei Kong, Jinhao Duan, RuiPeng Ma, Heng Tao Shen, Xiaoshuang Shi, Xiaofeng Zhu, Kaidi Xu
Recently, diffusion models have achieved remarkable success in generating tasks, including image and audio generation. However, like other generative models, diffusion models are prone to privacy issues. In this paper, we propose an efficient query-based membership inference attack (MIA), namely Proximal Initialization Attack (PIA), which utilizes groundtruth trajectory obtained by $\epsilon$ initialized in $t=0$ and predicted point to infer memberships. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve competitive performance with only two queries that achieve at least 6$\times$ efficiency than the previous SOTA baseline on both discrete-time and continuous-time diffusion models. Moreover, previous works on the privacy of diffusion models have focused on vision tasks without considering audio tasks. Therefore, we also explore the robustness of diffusion models to MIA in the text-to-speech (TTS) task, which is an audio generation task. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to study the robustness of diffusion models to MIA in the TTS task. Experimental results indicate that models with mel-spectrogram (image-like) output are vulnerable to MIA, while models with audio output are relatively robust to MIA. Code is available at https://github.com/kong13661/PIA.
Athul Paul Jacob, Yikang Shen, Gabriele Farina, Jacob Andreas
When applied to question answering and other text generation tasks, language models (LMs) may be queried generatively (by sampling answers from their output distribution) or discriminatively (by using them to score or rank a set of candidate answers). These procedures sometimes yield very different predictions. How do we reconcile mutually incompatible scoring procedures to obtain coherent LM predictions? We introduce a new, a training-free, game-theoretic procedure for language model decoding. Our approach casts language model decoding as a regularized imperfect-information sequential signaling game—which we term the concensus game—in which a generator seeks to communicate an abstract correctness parameter using natural language sentences to a discriminator. We develop computational procedures for finding approximate equilibria of this game, resulting in a decoding algorithm we call equilibrium-ranking. Applied to a large number of tasks (including reading comprehension, commonsense reasoning, mathematical problem-solving, and assistive dialog), equilibrium-ranking consistently improves performance over existing LM decoding procedures. These improvements are sometimes substantial—on multiple benchmarks, we observe that applying equilibrium-ranking to LLaMA-7B outperforms the much larger LLaMA-65B and PaLM-540B models.
Yongchao Du, Min Wang, Wengang Zhou, Shuping Hui, Houqiang Li
The task of composed image retrieval (CIR) aims to retrieve images based on the query image and the text describing the users' intent. Existing methods have made great progress with the advanced large vision-language (VL) model in CIR task, however, they generally suffer from two main issues: lack of labeled triplets for model training and difficulty of deployment on resource-restricted environments when deploying the large vision-language model. To tackle the above problems, we propose Image2Sentence based Asymmetric zero-shot composed image retrieval (ISA), which takes advantage of the VL model and only relies on unlabeled images for composition learning. In the framework, we propose a new adaptive token learner that maps an image to a sentence in the word embedding space of VL model. The sentence adaptively captures discriminative visual information and is further integrated with the text modifier. An asymmetric structure is devised for flexible deployment, in which the lightweight model is adopted for the query side while the large VL model is deployed on the gallery side. The global contrastive distillation and the local alignment regularization are adopted for the alignment between the light model and the VL model for CIR task. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed ISA could better cope with the real retrieval scenarios and further improve retrieval accuracy and efficiency.
Taehyeon Kim, Joonkee Kim, Gihun Lee, Se-Young Yun
tl;dr: This paper proposes a decoding method that using noisy instructions to help instruction-tuned models concentrate on the given instructions.
While instruction-tuned language models have demonstrated impressive zero-shot generalization, these models often struggle to generate accurate responses when faced with instructions that fall outside their training set. This paper presents Instructive Decoding (ID), a simple yet effective approach that augments the efficacy of instruction-tuned models. Specifically, ID adjusts the logits for next-token prediction in a contrastive manner, utilizing predictions generated from a manipulated version of the original instruction, referred to as a noisy instruction. This noisy instruction aims to elicit responses that could diverge from the intended instruction yet remain plausible. We conduct experiments across a spectrum of such noisy instructions, ranging from those that insert semantic noise via random words to others like 'opposite' that elicit the deviated responses. Our approach achieves considerable performance gains across various instruction-tuned models and tasks without necessitating any additional parameter updates. Notably, utilizing 'opposite' as the noisy instruction in ID, which shows the maximum divergence from the original instruction, consistently produces the most significant performance gains across multiple models and tasks.
Chenguo Lin, Yadong MU
tl;dr: We propose to synthesize 3D indoor scenes from instructions by integrating a semantic graph prior and a layout decoder, significantly improving generation controllability and fidelity.
Comprehending natural language instructions is a charming property for 3D indoor scene synthesis systems. Existing methods directly model object joint distributions and express object relations implicitly within a scene, thereby hindering the controllability of generation. We introduce InstructScene, a novel generative framework that integrates a semantic graph prior and a layout decoder to improve controllability and fidelity for 3D scene synthesis. The proposed semantic graph prior jointly learns scene appearances and layout distributions, exhibiting versatility across various downstream tasks in a zero-shot manner. To facilitate the benchmarking for text-driven 3D scene synthesis, we curate a high-quality dataset of scene-instruction pairs with large language and multimodal models. Extensive experimental results reveal that the proposed method surpasses existing state-of-the-art approaches by a large margin. Thorough ablation studies confirm the efficacy of crucial design components. Project page: https://chenguolin.github.io/projects/InstructScene.
Margalit Glasgow
tl;dr: We show that standard minibatch SGD can learn the quadratic XOR function on neural networks in $d polylog(d)$ samples
In this work, we consider the optimization process of minibatch stochastic gradient descent (SGD) on a 2-layer neural network with data separated by a quadratic ground truth function. We prove that with data drawn from the Boolean hypercube labeled by the quadratic ``XOR'' function $y = -x_ix_j$ , it is possible to train to a population error $o(1)$ with $\Theta(d\text{polylog}(d))$ samples. Our result considers simultaneously training both layers of the two-layer-neural network with ReLU activations via standard minibatch SGD on the logistic loss. To our knowledge, this work is the first to give a sample complexity of for efficiently learning the XOR function on isotropic data on a standard neural network with standard training. Our main technique is showing that the network evolves in two phases: a \em signal-finding \em phase where the network is small and many of the neurons evolve independently to find features, and a \em signal-heavy \em phase, where SGD maintains and balances the features. We leverage the simultaneous training of the layers to show that it is sufficient for only a small fraction of the neurons to learn features, since those neurons will be amplified by the simultaneous growth of their second layer weights.
Ruoyu Chen, Hua Zhang, Siyuan Liang, Jingzhi Li, Xiaochun Cao
tl;dr: This paper re-models the image attribution problem as a submodular subset selection problem, aiming to enhance model interpretability using fewer regions.
Image attribution algorithms aim to identify important regions that are highly relevant to model decisions. Although existing attribution solutions can effectively assign importance to target elements, they still face the following challenges: 1) existing attribution methods generate inaccurate small regions thus misleading the direction of correct attribution, and 2) the model cannot produce good attribution results for samples with wrong predictions. To address the above challenges, this paper re-models the above image attribution problem as a submodular subset selection problem, aiming to enhance model interpretability using fewer regions. To address the lack of attention to local regions, we construct a novel submodular function to discover more accurate small interpretation regions. To enhance the attribution effect for all samples, we also impose four different constraints on the selection of sub-regions, i.e., confidence, effectiveness, consistency, and collaboration scores, to assess the importance of various subsets. Moreover, our theoretical analysis substantiates that the proposed function is in fact submodular. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method outperforms SOTA methods on two face datasets (Celeb-A and VGG-Face2) and one fine-grained dataset (CUB-200-2011). For correctly predicted samples, the proposed method improves the Deletion and Insertion scores with an average of 4.9\% and 2.5\% gain relative to HSIC-Attribution. For incorrectly predicted samples, our method achieves gains of 81.0\% and 18.4\% compared to the HSIC-Attribution algorithm in the average highest confidence and Insertion score respectively. The code is released at https://github.com/RuoyuChen10/SMDL-Attribution.
Tongda Xu, Ziran Zhu, Dailan He, Yanghao Li, Lina Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Zhe Wang, Hongwei Qin, Yan Wang, Jingjing Liu, Ya-Qin Zhang
tl;dr: Indempotence constraint inversion of unconditional generative model achieve perceptual image compression.
Idempotence is the stability of image codec to re-compression. At the first glance, it is unrelated to perceptual image compression. However, we find that theoretically: 1) Conditional generative model-based perceptual codec satisfies idempotence; 2) Unconditional generative model with idempotence constraint is equivalent to conditional generative codec. Based on this newfound equivalence, we propose a new paradigm of perceptual image codec by inverting unconditional generative model with idempotence constraints. Our codec is theoretically equivalent to conditional generative codec, and it does not require training new models. Instead, it only requires a pre-trained mean-square-error codec and unconditional generative model. Empirically, we show that our proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods such as HiFiC and ILLM, in terms of Fréchet Inception Distance (FID). The source code is provided in https://github.com/tongdaxu/Idempotence-and-Perceptual-Image-Compression.
Gen Li, Yuting Wei, Yuxin Chen, Yuejie Chi
Diffusion models, which convert noise into new data instances by learning to reverse a Markov diffusion process, have become a cornerstone in contemporary generative modeling. While their practical power has now been widely recognized, the theoretical underpinnings remain far from mature. In this work, we develop a suite of non-asymptotic theory towards understanding the data generation process of diffusion models in discrete time, assuming access to $\ell_2$-accurate estimates of the (Stein) score functions. For a popular deterministic sampler (based on the probability flow ODE), we establish a convergence rate proportional to $1/T$ (with $T$ the total number of steps), improving upon past results; for another mainstream stochastic sampler (i.e., a type of the denoising diffusion probabilistic model), we derive a convergence rate proportional to $1/\sqrt{T}$, matching the state-of-the-art theory. Imposing only minimal assumptions on the target data distribution (e.g., no smoothness assumption is imposed), our results characterize how $\ell_2$ score estimation errors affect the quality of the data generation process. In contrast to prior works, our theory is developed based on an elementary yet versatile non-asymptotic approach without resorting to toolboxes for SDEs and ODEs.
Gregory Kang Ruey Lau, Apivich Hemachandra, See-Kiong Ng, Bryan Kian Hsiang Low
tl;dr: A novel PINN training algorithm, motivated by analysis of the Neural Tangent Kernel, that jointly selects all training point types in the composite loss function to gain large performance boosts for forward, inverse, and transfer learning problems.
Physics-Informed Neural Networks (PINNs), which incorporate PDEs as soft constraints, train with a composite loss function that contains multiple training point types: different types of collocation points chosen during training to enforce each PDE and initial/boundary conditions, and experimental points which are usually costly to obtain via experiments or simulations. Training PINNs using this loss function is challenging as it typically requires selecting large numbers of points of different types, each with different training dynamics. Unlike past works that focused on the selection of either collocation or experimental points, this work introduces PINN Adaptive ColLocation and Experimental points selection (PINNACLE), the first algorithm that jointly optimizes the selection of all training point types, while automatically adjusting the proportion of collocation point types as training progresses. PINNACLE uses information on the interactions among training point types, which had not been considered before, based on an analysis of PINN training dynamics via the Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK). We theoretically show that the criterion used by PINNACLE is related to the PINN generalization error, and empirically demonstrate that PINNACLE is able to outperform existing point selection methods for forward, inverse, and transfer learning problems.
Matthew Finlayson, John Hewitt, Alexander Koller, Swabha Swayamdipta, Ashish Sabharwal
tl;dr: We show that truncation sampling coarsely eliminates errors due to the softmax bottleneck, and develop a precise sampling method which outperforms truncation on open-ended text generation.
Despite their ubiquity in language generation, it remains unknown why truncation sampling heuristics like nucleus sampling are so effective. We provide a theoretical explanation for the effectiveness of the truncation sampling by proving that truncation methods that discard tokens below some probability threshold (the most common type of truncation) can guarantee that all sampled tokens have nonzero true probability. However, thresholds are a coarse heuristic, and necessarily discard some tokens with nonzero true probability as well. In pursuit of a more precise sampling strategy, we show that we can leverage a known source of model errors, the softmax bottleneck, to prove that certain tokens have nonzero true probability, without relying on a threshold. Based on our findings, we develop an experimental truncation strategy and the present pilot studies demonstrating the promise of this type of algorithm. Our evaluations show that our method outperforms its threshold-based counterparts under automatic and human evaluation metrics for low-entropy (i.e., close to greedy) open-ended text generation. Our theoretical findings and pilot experiments provide both insight into why truncation sampling works, and make progress toward more expressive sampling algorithms that better surface the generative capabilities of large language models.
Wenlong Chen, Yegor Klochkov, Yang Liu
We consider a binary classification problem under group fairness constraints, which can be one of Demographic Parity (DP), Equalized Opportunity (EOp), or Equalized Odds (EO). We propose an explicit characterization of Bayes optimal classifier under the fairness constraints, which turns out to be a simple modification rule of the unconstrained classifier. Namely, we introduce a novel instance-level measure of bias, which we call bias score, and the modification rule is a simple linear rule on top of the finite amount of bias scores. Based on this characterization, we develop a post-hoc approach that allows us to adapt to fairness constraints while maintaining high accuracy. In the case of DP and EOp constraints, the modification rule is thresholding a single bias score, while in the case of EO constraints we are required to fit a linear modification rule with 2 parameters. The method can also be applied for composite group-fairness criteria, such as ones involving several sensitive attributes. We achieve competitive or better performance compared to both in-processing and post-processing methods across three datasets: Adult, COMPAS, and CelebA. Unlike most post-processing methods, we do not require access to sensitive attributes during the inference time.
Zengwei Yao, Liyong Guo, Xiaoyu Yang, Wei Kang, Fangjun Kuang, Yifan Yang, Zengrui Jin, Long Lin, Daniel Povey
The Conformer has become the most popular encoder model for automatic speech recognition (ASR). It adds convolution modules to a transformer to learn both local and global dependencies. In this work we describe a faster, more memory-efficient, and better-performing transformer, called Zipformer. Modeling changes include: 1) a U-Net-like encoder structure where middle stacks operate at lower frame rates; 2) reorganized block structure with more modules, within which we re-use attention weights for efficiency; 3) a modified form of LayerNorm called BiasNorm allows us to retain some length information; 4) new activation functions SwooshR and SwooshL work better than Swish. We also propose a new optimizer, called ScaledAdam, which scales the update by each tensor's current scale to keep the relative change about the same, and also explictly learns the parameter scale. It achieves faster converge and better performance than Adam. Extensive experiments on LibriSpeech, Aishell-1, and WenetSpeech datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed Zipformer over other state-of-the-art ASR models. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/k2-fsa/icefall.
Yucheng Yang, Tianyi Zhou, Qiang He, Lei Han, Mykola Pechenizkiy, Meng Fang
Unsupervised reinforcement learning (URL) aims to learn general skills for unseen downstream tasks. Mutual Information Skill Learning (MISL) addresses URL by maximizing the mutual information between states and skills but lacks sufficient theoretical analysis, e.g., how well its learned skills can initialize a downstream task's policy. Our new theoretical analysis shows that the diversity and separatability of learned skills are fundamentally critical to downstream task adaptation but MISL does not necessarily guarantee them. To improve MISL, we propose a novel disentanglement metric LSEPIN and build an information-geometric connection between LSEPIN and downstream task adaptation cost. For better geometric properties, we investigate a new strategy that replaces the KL divergence in information geometry with Wasserstein distance. We extend the geometric analysis to it, which leads to a novel skill-learning objective WSEP. It is theoretically justified to be helpful to task adaptation and it is capable of discovering more initial policies for downstream tasks than MISL. We further propose a Wasserstein distance-based algorithm PWSEP can theoretically discover all potentially optimal initial policies.
Sigal Raab, Inbal Leibovitch, Guy Tevet, Moab Arar, Amit Haim Bermano, Daniel Cohen-Or
tl;dr: We present a model designed to learn the internal motifs of a single motion sequence with arbitrary topology and synthesize diverse motions that are faithful to the learned motifs.
Synthesizing realistic animations of humans, animals, and even imaginary creatures, has long been a goal for artists and computer graphics professionals. Compared to the imaging domain, which is rich with large available datasets, the number of data instances for the motion domain is limited, particularly for the animation of animals and exotic creatures (e.g., dragons), which have unique skeletons and motion patterns. In this work, we introduce SinMDM, a Single Motion Diffusion Model. It is designed to learn the internal motifs of a single motion sequence with arbitrary topology and synthesize a variety of motions of arbitrary length that remain faithful to the learned motifs. We harness the power of diffusion models and present a denoising network explicitly designed for the task of learning from a single input motion. SinMDM is crafted as a lightweight architecture, which avoids overfitting by using a shallow network with local attention layers that narrow the receptive field and encourage motion diversity. Our work applies to multiple contexts, including spatial and temporal in-betweening, motion expansion, style transfer, and crowd animation. Our results show that SinMDM outperforms existing methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, while prior network-based approaches require additional training for different applications, SinMDM supports these applications during inference. Our project page, which includes links to the code and trained models, is accessible at https://sinmdm.github.io/SinMDM-page.
Yuchen Zhuang, Xiang Chen, Tong Yu, Saayan Mitra, Victor Bursztyn, Ryan A. Rossi, Somdeb Sarkhel, Chao Zhang
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated powerful decision-making and planning capabilities in solving complicated real-world problems. LLM-based autonomous agents can interact with diverse tools (e.g., functional APIs) and generate solution plans that execute a series of API function calls in a step-by-step manner. The multitude of candidate API function calls significantly expands the action space, amplifying the critical need for efficient action space navigation. However, existing methods either struggle with unidirectional exploration in expansive action spaces, trapped into a locally optimal solution, or suffer from exhaustively traversing all potential actions, causing inefficient navigation. To address these issues, we propose ToolChain*, an efficient tree search-based planning algorithm for LLM-based agents. It formulates the entire action space as a decision tree, where each node represents a possible API function call involved in a solution plan. By incorporating the A$^*$ search algorithm with task-specific cost function design, it efficiently prunes high-cost branches that may involve incorrect actions, identifying the most low-cost valid path as the solution. Extensive experiments on multiple tool-use and reasoning tasks demonstrate that ToolChain* efficiently balances exploration and exploitation within an expansive action space. It outperforms state-of-the-art baselines on planning and reasoning tasks by 3.1% and 3.5% on average while requiring 7.35x and 2.31x less time, respectively.
Dyah Adila, Changho Shin, Linrong Cai, Frederic Sala
tl;dr: We make zero-shot models more robust with zero-shot insights from language models---no fine-tuning or labeled data required.
Zero-shot inference is a powerful paradigm that enables the use of large pretrained models for downstream classification tasks without further training. However, these models are vulnerable to inherited biases that can impact their performance. The traditional solution is fine-tuning, but this undermines the key advantage of pretrained models, which is their ability to be used out-of-the-box. We propose RoboShot, a method that improves the robustness of pretrained model embeddings in a fully zero-shot fashion. First, we use language models (LMs) to obtain useful insights from task descriptions. These insights are embedded and used to remove harmful and boost useful components in embeddings---without any supervision. Theoretically, we provide a simple and tractable model for biases in zero-shot embeddings and give a result characterizing under what conditions our approach can boost performance. Empirically, we evaluate RoboShot on nine image and NLP classification tasks and show an average improvement of 15.98% over several zero-shot baselines. Additionally, we demonstrate that RoboShot is compatible with a variety of pretrained and language models and propose a way to further boost performance with a zero-shot adaptation variant.
Yang He, Lingao Xiao, Joey Tianyi Zhou, Ivor Tsang
tl;dr: Compress N condensation processes into one single condensation process to generate condensed datasets with various sizes.
While dataset condensation effectively enhances training efficiency, its application in on-device scenarios brings unique challenges. 1) Due to the fluctuating computational resources of these devices, there's a demand for a flexible dataset size that diverges from a predefined size. 2) The limited computational power on devices often prevents additional condensation operations. These two challenges connect to the "subset degradation problem" in traditional dataset condensation: a subset from a larger condensed dataset is often unrepresentative compared to directly condensing the whole dataset to that smaller size. In this paper, we propose Multisize Dataset Condensation (MDC) by **compressing $N$ condensation processes into a single condensation process to obtain datasets with multiple sizes.** Specifically, we introduce an "adaptive subset loss" on top of the basic condensation loss to mitigate the "subset degradation problem". Our MDC method offers several benefits: 1) No additional condensation process is required; 2) reduced storage requirement by reusing condensed images. Experiments validate our findings on networks including ConvNet, ResNet and DenseNet, and datasets including SVHN, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet. For example, we achieved 6.40% average accuracy gains on condensing CIFAR-10 to ten images per class. Code is available at: [https://github.com/he-y/Multisize-Dataset-Condensation](https://github.com/he-y/Multisize-Dataset-Condensation).
Qiyu Kang, Kai Zhao, Qinxu Ding, Feng Ji, Xuhao Li, Wenfei Liang, Yang Song, Wee Peng Tay
We introduce the FRactional-Order graph Neural Dynamical network (FROND), a learning framework that extends traditional graph neural ordinary differential equation (ODE) models by incorporating the time-fractional Caputo derivative. Due to its non-local nature, fractional calculus allows our framework to capture long-term memories in the feature updating process, in contrast to the Markovian nature of updates in traditional graph neural ODE models. This can lead to improved graph representation learning. We offer an interpretation of the feature updating process on graphs from a non-Markovian random walk perspective when the feature updating is governed by a diffusion process. We demonstrate analytically that over-smoothing can be mitigated in this setting. To experimentally demonstrate the versatility of the FROND framework, we evaluate the fractional counterparts of various established graph ODE models. Their consistently superior performance, compared to their original counterparts, highlights the potential of the FROND framework as an effective extension to boost the efficacy of various graph neural ODE models.
Yizhi LI, Ruibin Yuan, Ge Zhang, Yinghao Ma, Xingran Chen, Hanzhi Yin, Chenghao Xiao, Chenghua Lin, Anton Ragni, Emmanouil Benetos, Norbert Gyenge, Roger Dannenberg, Ruibo Liu, Wenhu Chen, Gus Xia, Yemin Shi, Wenhao Huang, Zili Wang, Yike Guo, Jie Fu
tl;dr: We propose MERT, a self-supervised acoustic music understading model that generalises well on a wide range of tasks.
Self-supervised learning (SSL) has recently emerged as a promising paradigm for training generalisable models on large-scale data in the fields of vision, text, and speech. Although SSL has been proven effective in speech and audio, its application to music audio has yet to be thoroughly explored. This is partially due to the distinctive challenges associated with modelling musical knowledge, particularly tonal and pitched characteristics of music. To address this research gap, we propose an acoustic **M**usic und**ER**standing model with large-scale self-supervised **T**raining (**MERT**), which incorporates teacher models to provide pseudo labels in the masked language modelling (MLM) style acoustic pre-training. In our exploration, we identified an effective combination of teacher models, which outperforms conventional speech and audio approaches in terms of performance. This combination includes an acoustic teacher based on Residual Vector Quantization - Variational AutoEncoder (RVQ-VAE) and a musical teacher based on the Constant-Q Transform (CQT). Furthermore, we explore a wide range of settings to overcome the instability in acoustic language model pre-training, which allows our designed paradigm to scale from 95M to 330M parameters. Experimental results indicate that our model can generalise and perform well on 14 music understanding tasks and attain state-of-the-art (SOTA) overall scores.
Yan Sun, Jicong Fan
tl;dr: This paper presents MMD-based graph kernels for improved graph metric learning with proven effectiveness in clustering and classification tasks.
This paper focuses on graph metric learning. First, we present a class of maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) based graph kernels, called MMD-GK. These kernels are computed by applying MMD to the node representations of two graphs with message-passing propagation. Secondly, we provide a class of deep MMD-GKs that are able to learn graph kernels and implicit graph features adaptively in an unsupervised manner. Thirdly, we propose a class of supervised deep MMD-GKs that are able to utilize label information of graphs and hence yield more discriminative metrics. Besides the algorithms, we provide theoretical analysis for the proposed methods. The proposed methods are evaluated in comparison to many baselines such as graph kernels and graph neural networks in the tasks of graph clustering and graph classification. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our methods.
Xian Liu, Jian Ren, Aliaksandr Siarohin, Ivan Skorokhodov, Yanyu Li, Dahua Lin, Xihui Liu, Ziwei Liu, Sergey Tulyakov
tl;dr: We propose a unified framework, HyperHuman with latent structural diffusion, that generates in-the-wild human images of high realism and diverse layouts.
Despite significant advances in large-scale text-to-image models, achieving hyper-realistic human image generation remains a desirable yet unsolved task. Existing models like Stable Diffusion and DALL·E 2 tend to generate human images with incoherent parts or unnatural poses. To tackle these challenges, our key insight is that human image is inherently structural over multiple granularities, from the coarse-level body skeleton to fine-grained spatial geometry. Therefore, capturing such correlations between the explicit appearance and latent structure in one model is essential to generate coherent and natural human images. To this end, we propose a unified framework, HyperHuman, that generates in-the-wild human images of high realism and diverse layouts. Specifically, 1) we first build a large-scale human-centric dataset, named HumanVerse, which consists of 340M images with comprehensive annotations like human pose, depth, and surface normal. 2) Next, we propose a Latent Structural Diffusion Model that simultaneously denoises the depth and surface normal along with the synthesized RGB image. Our model enforces the joint learning of image appearance, spatial relationship, and geometry in a unified network, where each branch in the model complements to each other with both structural awareness and textural richness. 3) Finally, to further boost the visual quality, we propose a Structure-Guided Refiner to compose the predicted conditions for more detailed generation of higher resolution. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our framework yields the state-of-the-art performance, generating hyper-realistic human images under diverse scenarios.
Lianmin Zheng, Wei-Lin Chiang, Ying Sheng, Tianle Li, Siyuan Zhuang, Zhanghao Wu, Yonghao Zhuang, Zhuohan Li, Zi Lin, Eric Xing, Joseph E. Gonzalez, Ion Stoica, Hao Zhang
tl;dr: This paper introduces LMSYS-Chat-1M, a large-scale dataset containing one million real-world conversations with 25 state-of-the-art LLMs.
Studying how people interact with large language models (LLMs) in real-world scenarios is increasingly important due to their widespread use in various applications. In this paper, we introduce LMSYS-Chat-1M, a large-scale dataset containing one million real-world conversations with 25 state-of-the-art LLMs. This dataset is collected from 210K unique IP addresses in the wild on our Vicuna demo and Chatbot Arena website. We offer an overview of the dataset's content, including its curation process, basic statistics, and topic distribution, highlighting its diversity, originality, and scale. We demonstrate its versatility through four use cases: developing content moderation models that perform similarly to GPT-4, building a safety benchmark, training instruction-following models that perform similarly to Vicuna, and creating challenging benchmark questions. We believe that this dataset will serve as a valuable resource for understanding and advancing LLM capabilities. The dataset is publicly available at https://huggingface.co/datasets/lmsys/lmsys-chat-1m.
Lizhang Chen, Bo Liu, Kaizhao Liang, qiang liu
tl;dr: This work shows that the lion optimizer is performing a constrained optimization, and the key design choices of lion is equivalent to performing a hamiltonian mirror descent.
Lion (Evolved Sign Momentum), a new optimizer discovered through program search, has shown promising results in training large AI models. It achieves results comparable to AdamW but with greater memory efficiency. As what we can expect from the result of the random search, Lion blends a number of elements from existing algorithms, including signed momentum, decoupled weight decay, Polayk and Nesterov momentum, but doesn't fit into any existing category of theoretically grounded optimizers. Thus, even though Lion appears to perform well as a general-purpose optimizer for a wide range of tasks, its theoretical basis remains uncertain. This absence of theoretical clarity limits opportunities to further enhance and expand Lion's efficacy. This work aims to demystify Lion. Using both continuous-time and discrete-time analysis, we demonstrate that Lion is a novel and theoretically grounded approach for minimizing a general loss function $f(x)$ while enforcing a bound constraint $||x||_\infty \leq 1/\lambda$. Lion achieves this through the incorporation of decoupled weight decay, where $\lambda$ represents the weight decay coefficient. Our analysis is facilitated by the development of a new Lyapunov function for the Lion updates. It applies to a wide range of Lion-$\phi$ algorithms, where the $sign(\cdot)$ operator in Lion is replaced by the subgradient of a convex function $\phi$, leading to the solution of the general composite optimization problem $\min_x f(x) + \phi^*(x)$. Our findings provide valuable insights into the dynamics of Lion and pave the way for further enhancements and extensions of Lion-related algorithms.
Matt Barnes, Matthew Abueg, Oliver F. Lange, Matt Deeds, Jason Trader, Denali Molitor, Markus Wulfmeier, Shawn O'Banion
Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) offers a powerful and general framework for learning humans' latent preferences in route recommendation, yet no approach has successfully addressed planetary-scale problems with hundreds of millions of states and demonstration trajectories. In this paper, we introduce scaling techniques based on graph compression, spatial parallelization, and improved initialization conditions inspired by a connection to eigenvector algorithms. We revisit classic IRL methods in the routing context, and make the key observation that there exists a trade-off between the use of cheap, deterministic planners and expensive yet robust stochastic policies. This insight is leveraged in Receding Horizon Inverse Planning (RHIP), a new generalization of classic IRL algorithms that provides fine-grained control over performance trade-offs via its planning horizon. Our contributions culminate in a policy that achieves a 16-24% improvement in route quality at a global scale, and to the best of our knowledge, represents the largest published study of IRL algorithms in a real-world setting to date. We conclude by conducting an ablation study of key components, presenting negative results from alternative eigenvalue solvers, and identifying opportunities to further improve scalability via IRL-specific batching strategies.
Rui Zheng, Wei Shen, Yuan Hua, Wenbin Lai, Shihan Dou, Yuhao Zhou, Zhiheng Xi, Xiao Wang, Haoran Huang, Tao Gui, Qi Zhang, Xuanjing Huang
tl;dr: This paper introduces a novel method for aligning AI assistants with human preferences, boosting RLHF training stability and improving the model’s generalization across various domains.
The success of AI assistants based on language models (LLMs) hinges crucially on Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), which enables the generation of responses more aligned with human preferences. As universal AI assistants, there's a growing expectation for them to perform consistently across various domains. However, previous work shows that Reinforcement Learning (RL) often exploits shortcuts to attain high rewards and overlooks challenging samples. This focus on quick reward gains undermines both the stability in training and the model's ability to generalize to new, unseen data. In this work, we propose a novel approach that can learn a consistent policy via RL across various data groups or domains. Given the challenges associated with acquiring group annotations, our method automatically classifies data into different groups, deliberately maximizing performance variance. Then, we optimize the policy to perform well on challenging groups. Lastly, leveraging the established groups, our approach adaptively adjusts the exploration space, allocating more learning capacity to more challenging data and preventing the model from over-optimizing on simpler data. Experimental results indicate that our approach significantly enhances training stability and model generalization.
Xue Jiang, Feng Liu, Zhen Fang, Hong Chen, Tongliang Liu, Feng Zheng, Bo Han
Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection aims at identifying samples from unknown classes, playing a crucial role in trustworthy models against errors on unexpected inputs. Extensive research has been dedicated to exploring OOD detection in the vision modality. {Vision-language models (VLMs) can leverage both textual and visual information for various multi-modal applications, whereas few OOD detection methods take into account information from the text modality. In this paper, we propose a novel post hoc OOD detection method, called NegLabel, which takes a vast number of negative labels from extensive corpus databases. We design a novel scheme for the OOD score collaborated with negative labels. Theoretical analysis helps to understand the mechanism of negative labels. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method NegLabel achieves state-of-the-art performance on various OOD detection benchmarks and generalizes well on multiple VLM architectures. Furthermore, our method NegLabel exhibits remarkable robustness against diverse domain shifts. The codes are available at https://github.com/tmlr-group/NegLabel.
Zishun Yu, Yunzhe Tao, Liyu Chen, Tao Sun, Hongxia Yang
Program synthesis aims to create accurate, executable code from natural language descriptions. This field has leveraged the power of reinforcement learning (RL) in conjunction with large language models (LLMs), significantly enhancing code generation capabilities. This integration focuses on directly optimizing functional correctness, transcending conventional supervised losses. While current literature predominantly favors policy-based algorithms, attributes of program synthesis suggest a natural compatibility with value-based methods. This stems from rich collection of off-policy programs developed by human programmers, and the straightforward verification of generated programs through automated unit testing (i.e. easily obtainable rewards in RL language). Diverging from the predominant use of policy-based algorithms, our work explores the applicability of value-based approaches, leading to the development of our $\mathcal{B}$-Coder (pronounced Bellman coder). Yet, training value-based methods presents challenges due to the enormous search space inherent to program synthesis. To this end, we propose an initialization protocol for RL agents utilizing pre-trained LMs and a conservative Bellman operator to reduce training complexities. Moreover, we demonstrate how to leverage the learned value functions as a dual strategy to post-process generated programs. Our empirical evaluations demonstrated $\mathcal{B}$-Coder's capability in achieving state-of-the-art performance compared with policy-based methods. Remarkably, this achievement is reached with minimal reward engineering effort, highlighting the effectiveness of value-based RL, independent of reward designs.
David Brellmann, Eloïse Berthier, David Filliat, Goran Frehse
tl;dr: We show a performance drop of TD algorithms when the ratio of network parameters to visited states is around one, leading to a double descent phenomenon, and that this can be mitigated with increased $l_2$-regularization or by visiting all states.
Temporal Difference (TD) algorithms are widely used in Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL). Their performance is heavily influenced by the size of the neural network. While in supervised learning, the regime of over-parameterization and its benefits are well understood, the situation in RL is much less clear. In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the influence of network size and $l_2$-regularization on performance. We identify the ratio between the number of parameters and the number of visited states as a crucial factor and define over-parameterization as the regime when it is larger than one. Furthermore, we observe a double descent phenomenon, i.e., a sudden drop in performance around the parameter/state ratio of one. Leveraging random features and the lazy training regime, we study the regularized Least-Square Temporal Difference (LSTD) algorithm in an asymptotic regime, as both the number of parameters and states go to infinity, maintaining a constant ratio. We derive deterministic limits of both the empirical and the true Mean-Squared Bellman Error (MSBE) that feature correction terms responsible for the double descent. Correction terms vanish when the $l_2$-regularization is increased or the number of unvisited states goes to zero. Numerical experiments with synthetic and small real-world environments closely match the theoretical predictions.
Harshit Sikchi, Qinqing Zheng, Amy Zhang, Scott Niekum
tl;dr: A unification of RL and IL methods through the lens of duality that allows us to propose new methods for discriminator-free imitation learning and stable offline reinforcement learning.
The goal of reinforcement learning (RL) is to find a policy that maximizes the expected cumulative return. It has been shown that this objective can be represented as an optimization problem of state-action visitation distribution under linear constraints. The dual problem of this formulation, which we refer to as *dual RL*, is unconstrained and easier to optimize. In this work, we first cast several state-of-the-art offline RL and offline imitation learning (IL) algorithms as instances of dual RL approaches with shared structures. Such unification allows us to identify the root cause of the shortcomings of prior methods. For offline IL, our analysis shows that prior methods are based on a restrictive coverage assumption that greatly limits their performance in practice. To fix this limitation, we propose a new discriminator-free method ReCOIL that learns to imitate from arbitrary off-policy data to obtain near-expert performance. For offline RL, our analysis frames a recent offline RL method XQL in the dual framework, and we further propose a new method $f$-DVL that provides alternative choices to the Gumbel regression loss that fixes the known training instability issue of XQL. The performance improvements by both of our proposed methods, ReCOIL and $f$-DVL, in IL and RL are validated on an extensive suite of simulated robot locomotion and manipulation tasks.
Kim-Celine Kahl, Carsten T. Lüth, Maximilian Zenk, Klaus Maier-Hein, Paul F Jaeger
tl;dr: We address the flawed validation in uncertainty estimation for segmentation by introducing a framework that explores uncertainty types, essential components, and effective methods, with empirical results from simulated and real-world data.
Uncertainty estimation is an essential and heavily-studied component for the reliable application of semantic segmentation methods. While various studies exist claiming methodological advances on the one hand, and successful application on the other hand, the field is currently hampered by a gap between theory and practice leaving fundamental questions unanswered: Can data-related and model-related uncertainty really be separated in practice? Which components of an uncertainty method are essential for real-world performance? Which uncertainty method works well for which application? In this work, we link this research gap to a lack of systematic and comprehensive evaluation of uncertainty methods. Specifically, we identify three key pitfalls in current literature and present an evaluation framework that bridges the research gap by providing 1) a controlled environment for studying data ambiguities as well as distribution shifts, 2) systematic ablations of relevant method components, and 3) test-beds for the five predominant uncertainty applications: OoD-detection, active learning, failure detection, calibration, and ambiguity modeling. Empirical results on simulated as well as real-world data demonstrate how the proposed framework is able to answer the predominant questions in the field revealing for instance that 1) separation of uncertainty types works on simulated data but does not necessarily translate to real-world data, 2) aggregation of scores is a crucial but currently neglected component of uncertainty methods, 3) While ensembles are performing most robustly across the different downstream tasks and settings, test-time augmentation often constitutes a light-weight alternative. Code is at: https://github.com/IML-DKFZ/values
Quentin Delfosse, Patrick Schramowski, Martin Mundt, Alejandro Molina, Kristian Kersting
tl;dr: We exhibit the importance of plasticity for reinforcement learning, and propose to use learnable rational activation functions to augment agents' plasticity.
Latest insights from biology show that intelligence not only emerges from the connections between neurons, but that individual neurons shoulder more computational responsibility than previously anticipated. Specifically, neural plasticity should be critical in the context of constantly changing reinforcement learning (RL) environments, yet current approaches still primarily employ static activation functions. In this work, we motivate the use of adaptable activation functions in RL and show that rational activation functions are particularly suitable for augmenting plasticity. Inspired by residual networks, we derive a condition under which rational units are closed under residual connections and formulate a naturally regularised version. The proposed joint-rational activation allows for desirable degrees of flexibility, yet regularises plasticity to an extent that avoids overfitting by leveraging a mutual set of activation function parameters across layers. We demonstrate that equipping popular algorithms with (joint) rational activations leads to consistent improvements on different games from the Atari Learning Environment benchmark, notably making DQN competitive to DDQN and Rainbow.
Xinyu Zhao, Xuxi Chen, Yu Cheng, Tianlong Chen
tl;dr: We power up SMoE with language-guided rounting based on language hierarchy and difficulty, leading to superior machine translation performance.
Sparse Mixture-of-Experts (SMoE) has gained increasing popularity as a promising framework for scaling up multilingual machine translation (MMT) models with negligible extra computational overheads. However, current SMoE solutions neglect the intrinsic structures of the MMT problem: ($a$) $\textit{Linguistics Hierarchy.}$ Languages are naturally grouped according to their lingual properties like genetic families, phonological characteristics, etc; ($b$) $\textit{Language Complexity.}$ The learning difficulties are varied for diverse languages due to their grammar complexity, available resources, etc. Therefore, routing a fixed number of experts (e.g., $1$ or $2$ experts in usual) only at the word level leads to inferior performance. To fill in the missing puzzle, we propose $\textbf{\texttt{Lingual-SMoE}}$ by equipping the SMoE with adaptive and linguistic-guided routing policies. Specifically, it ($1$) extracts language representations to incorporate linguistic knowledge and uses them to allocate experts into different groups; ($2$) determines the number of activated experts for each target language in an adaptive and automatic manner, according to their translation difficulties, which aims to mitigate the potential over-/under-fitting issues of learning simple/challenges translations. Sufficient experimental studies on MMT benchmarks with {$16$, $50$, $100$} language pairs and various network architectures, consistently validate the superior performance of our proposals. For instance, $\texttt{Lingual-SMoE}$ outperforms its dense counterpart by over $5\%$ BLEU scores on $\texttt{OPUS-100}$ dataset. Codes are included in the supplement.
Wenhao Zhan, Masatoshi Uehara, Wen Sun, Jason D. Lee
tl;dr: PAC reward-agnostic reinforcement learning from preference feedback over trajectories with function approximation.
Preference-based Reinforcement Learning (PbRL) is a paradigm in which an RL agent learns to optimize a task using pair-wise preference-based feedback over trajectories, rather than explicit reward signals. While PbRL has demonstrated practical success in fine-tuning language models, existing theoretical work focuses on regret minimization and fails to capture most of the practical frameworks. In this study, we fill in such a gap between theoretical PbRL and practical algorithms by proposing a theoretical reward-agnostic PbRL framework where exploratory trajectories that enable accurate learning of hidden reward functions are acquired before collecting any human feedback. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that our algorithm requires less human feedback for learning the optimal policy under preference-based models with linear parameterization and unknown transitions, compared to the existing theoretical literature. Specifically, our framework can incorporate linear and low-rank MDPs with efficient sample complexity. Additionally, we investigate reward-agnostic RL with action-based comparison feedback and introduce an efficient querying algorithm tailored to this scenario.
Jiuding Sun, Chantal Shaib, Byron C Wallace
tl;dr: An evaluation of O.O.D. robustness of instruction-tuned LLMs with different instructions w.r.t. the tuning process
Instruction fine-tuning has recently emerged as a promising approach for improving the zero-shot capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) on new tasks. This technique has shown particular strength in improving the performance of modestly sized LLMs, sometimes inducing performance competitive with much larger model variants. In this paper, we ask two questions: (1) How sensitive are instruction-tuned models to the particular phrasings of instructions, and, (2) How can we make them more robust to such natural language variation? To answer the former, we collect a set of 319 instructions manually written by NLP practitioners for over 80 unique tasks included in widely used benchmarks, and we evaluate the variance and average performance of these instructions as compared to instruction phrasings observed during instruction fine-tuning. We find that using novel (unobserved) but appropriate instruction phrasings consistently degrades model performance, sometimes substantially so. Further, such natural instructions yield a wide variance in downstream performance, despite their semantic equivalence. Put another way, instruction-tuned models are not especially robust to instruction re-phrasings. We propose a simple method to mitigate this issue by introducing ``soft prompt'' embedding parameters and optimizing these to maximize the similarity between representations of semantically equivalent instructions. We show that this method consistently improves the robustness of instruction-tuned models.
Arturs Backurs, Zinan Lin, Sepideh Mahabadi, Sandeep Silwal, Jakub Tarnawski
tl;dr: We give fast algorithms for computing similarities between a query point and private data, for a wide class of similarity functions such as kernels and distances.
Many methods in differentially private model training rely on computing the similarity between a query point (such as public or synthetic data) and private data. We abstract out this common subroutine and study the following fundamental algorithmic problem: Given a similarity function $f$ and a large high-dimensional private dataset $X \subset \mathbb{R}^d$, output a differentially private (DP) data-structure which approximates $\sum_{x \in X} f(x,y)$ for any query $y$. We consider the cases where $f$ is a kernel function, such as $f(x,y) = e^{-\|x-y\|_2^2/\sigma^2}$ (also known as DP kernel density estimation), or a distance function such as $f(x,y) = \|x-y\|_2$, among others. Our theoretical results improve upon prior work and give better privacy-utility trade-offs as well as faster query times for a wide range of kernels and distance functions. The unifying approach behind our results is leveraging `low-dimensional structures' present in the specific functions $f$ that we study, using tools such as provable dimensionality reduction, approximation theory, and one-dimensional decomposition of the functions. Our algorithms empirically exhibit improved query times and accuracy over prior state of the art. We also present an application to DP classification. Our experiments demonstrate that the simple methodology of classifying based on average similarity is orders of magnitude faster than prior DP-SGD based approaches for comparable accuracy.
Christopher A. Choquette-Choo, Arun Ganesh, Thomas Steinke, Abhradeep Guha Thakurta
tl;dr: We propose an algorithm for computing privacy guarantees of the matrix mechanism with privacy amplification.
Privacy amplification exploits randomness in data selection to provide tighter differential privacy (DP) guarantees. This analysis is key to DP-SGD's success in machine learning (ML), but, is not readily applicable to the newer state-of-the-art (SOTA) algorithms. This is because these algorithms, known as DP-FTRL, use the matrix mechanism to add correlated noise instead of independent noise as in DP-SGD. In this paper, we propose "MMCC'' (matrix mechanism conditional composition), the first algorithm to analyze privacy amplification via sampling for any generic matrix mechanism. MMCC is nearly tight in that it approaches a lower bound as $\epsilon\to0$. To analyze correlated outputs in MMCC, we prove that they can be analyzed as if they were independent, by conditioning them on prior outputs. Our "conditional composition theorem'' has broad utility: we use it to show that the noise added to binary-tree-DP-FTRL can asymptotically match the noise added to DP-SGD with amplification. Our algorithm also has practical empirical utility. We show that amplification leads to significant improvement in the privacy/utility trade-offs for DP-FTRL style algorithms for standard benchmark tasks.
Lorenz Vaitl, Ludwig Winkler, Lorenz Richter, Pan Kessel
tl;dr: New low variance gradient estimator for normalizing flows
Recent work shows that path gradient estimators for normalizing flows have lower variance compared to standard estimators, resulting in improved training. However, they are often prohibitively more expensive from a computational point of view and cannot be applied to maximum likelihood training in a scalable manner, which severely hinders their widespread adoption. In this work, we overcome these crucial limitations. Specifically, we propose a fast path gradient estimator which works for all normalizing flow architectures of practical relevance for sampling from an unnormalized target distribution. We then show that this estimator can also be applied to maximum likelihood training and empirically establish its superior performance for several natural sciences applications.
Hong Chen, Yipeng Zhang, Simin Wu, Xin Wang, Xuguang Duan, Yuwei Zhou, Wenwu Zhu
Subject-driven text-to-image generation aims to generate customized images of the given subject based on the text descriptions, which has drawn increasing attention. Existing methods mainly resort to finetuning a pretrained generative model, where the identity-relevant information (e.g., the boy) and the identity-irrelevant information (e.g., the background or the pose of the boy) are entangled in the latent embedding space. However, the highly entangled latent embedding may lead to the failure of subject-driven text-to-image generation as follows: (i) the identity-irrelevant information hidden in the entangled embedding may dominate the generation process, resulting in the generated images heavily dependent on the irrelevant information while ignoring the given text descriptions; (ii) the identity-relevant information carried in the entangled embedding can not be appropriately preserved, resulting in identity change of the subject in the generated images. To tackle the problems, we propose DisenBooth, an identity-preserving disentangled tuning framework for subject-driven text-to-image generation. Specifically, DisenBooth finetunes the pretrained diffusion model in the denoising process. Different from previous works that utilize an entangled embedding to denoise each image, DisenBooth instead utilizes disentangled embeddings to respectively preserve the subject identity and capture the identity-irrelevant information. We further design the novel weak denoising and contrastive embedding auxiliary tuning objectives to achieve the disentanglement. Extensive experiments show that our proposed DisenBooth framework outperforms baseline models for subject-driven text-to-image generation with the identity-preserved embedding. Additionally, by combining the identity-preserved embedding and identity-irrelevant embedding, DisenBooth demonstrates more generation flexibility and controllability.
Aakash Lahoti, Stefani Karp, Ezra Winston, Aarti Singh, Yuanzhi Li
tl;dr: Sample complexity separation between fully connected, locally connected and convolutional neural networks on an image-like task
Vision-based tasks are known to exhibit the properties of locality and translation invariance. The superior performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on these tasks is attributed to the inductive bias of locality and weight sharing baked into their architecture. Existing attempts at quantifying the statistical benefits of these biases in CNNs over local convolutional neural networks (LCNs) and fully connected neural networks (FCNs) fall into one of the following categories: either do not establish a gap between the performance of these architectures, or ignore optimization considerations, or consider stylized settings that are not reflective of image-like tasks, particularly translation invariance. We introduce the Dynamic Signal Distribution (DSD), a data model that is designed to capture properties of real-world images such as locality and translation invariance. In DSD, each image is modeled with $k$ patches, with each patch of dimension $d$, and the label is determined by a $d$-sparse signal vector that can freely appear in any one of the $k$ patches. Under this task, we show that CNNs trained using gradient descent require $\tilde{O}(k+d)$ samples, whereas LCNs require $\Omega(kd)$ samples for predicting the label, establishing the statistical advantages of weight sharing in translation invariant tasks. Additionally, LCNs need $\tilde{O}(k(k+d))$ samples, compared to FCNs, which need $\Omega(k^2d)$ samples, showcasing the benefits of locality in local tasks.
Yiding Jiang, Christina Baek, J Zico Kolter
tl;dr: We propose a framework for feature learning that can explain previously not understood phenommena in deep learning.
Learning features from data is one of the defining characteristics of deep learning, but our theoretical understanding of the role features play in deep learning is still rudimentary. To address this gap, we introduce a new tool, the interaction tensor, for empirically analyzing the interaction between data and model through features. With the interaction tensor, we make several key observations about how features are distributed in data and how models with different random seeds learn different features. Based on these observations, we propose a conceptual framework for fea- ture learning. Under this framework, the expected accuracy for a single hypothesis and agreement for a pair of hypotheses can both be derived in closed-form. We demonstrate that the proposed framework can explain empirically observed phenomena, including the recently discovered Generalization Disagreement Equality (GDE) that allows for estimating the generalization error with only unlabeled data. Further, our theory also provides explicit construction of natural data distributions that break the GDE. Thus, we believe this work provides valuable new insight into our understanding of feature learning.
Xinshuai Dong, Biwei Huang, Ignavier Ng, Xiangchen Song, Yujia Zheng, Songyao Jin, Roberto Legaspi, Peter Spirtes, Kun Zhang
tl;dr: Causal Discovery in the Presence of Latent Variables with Rank Constraints
Most existing causal discovery methods rely on the assumption of no latent confounders, limiting their applicability in solving real-life problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel, versatile framework for causal discovery that accommodates the presence of causally-related hidden variables almost everywhere in the causal network (for instance, they can be effects of measured variables), based on rank information of covariance matrix over measured variables. We start by investigating the efficacy of rank in comparison to conditional independence and, theoretically, establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the identifiability of certain latent structural patterns. Furthermore, we develop a Rank-based Latent Causal Discovery algorithm, RLCD, that can efficiently locate hidden variables, determine their cardinalities, and discover the entire causal structure over both measured and hidden ones. We also show that, under certain graphical conditions, RLCD correctly identifies the Markov Equivalence Class of the whole latent causal graph asymptotically. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world personality data sets demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in finite-sample cases. Our code will be publicly available.
Andrew William Engel, Zhichao Wang, Natalie Frank, Ioana Dumitriu, Sutanay Choudhury, Anand Sarwate, Tony Chiang
tl;dr: We evaluate new approximate neural tangent kernel, including random projection variants that cost less to compute and store.
A recent trend in explainable AI research has focused on surrogate modeling, where neural networks are approximated as simpler ML algorithms such as kernel machines. A second trend has been to utilize kernel functions in various explain-by-example or data attribution tasks. In this work, we combine these two trends to analyze approximate empirical neural tangent kernels (eNTK) for data attribution. Approximation is critical for eNTK analysis due to the high computational cost to compute the eNTK. We define new approximate eNTK and perform novel analysis on how well the resulting kernel machine surrogate models correlate with the underlying neural network. We introduce two new random projection variants of approximate eNTK which allow users to tune the time and memory complexity of their calculation. We conclude that kernel machines using approximate neural tangent kernel as the kernel function are effective surrogate models, with the introduced trace NTK the most consistent performer.
Robin Louiset, Edouard Duchesnay, Antoine Grigis, Pietro Gori
tl;dr: We use Contrastive Learning when performing Contrastive Analysis (i.e: separating salient factors of variation - that only exist in the target dataset in contrast with common factors of variation between target and background datasets).
Contrastive Analysis is a sub-field of Representation Learning that aims at separating 1) salient factors of variation - that only exist in the target dataset (i.e., diseased subjects) in contrast with 2) common factors of variation between target and background (i.e., healthy subjects) datasets. Despite their relevance, current models based on Variational Auto-Encoders have shown poor performance in learning semantically-expressive representations. On the other hand, Contrastive Representation Learning has shown tremendous performance leaps in various applications (classification, clustering, etc.). In this work, we propose to leverage the ability of Contrastive Learning to learn semantically expressive representations when performing Contrastive Analysis. Namely, we reformulate Contrastive Analysis under the lens of the InfoMax Principle and identify two Mutual Information terms to maximize and one to minimize. We decompose the two first terms into an Alignment and a Uniformity term, as commonly done in Contrastive Learning. Then, we motivate a novel Mutual Information minimization strategy to prevent information leakage between common and salient distributions. We validate our method on datasets designed to assess the pattern separation capability in Contrastive Analysis, including MNIST superimposed on CIFAR10, CelebA accessories, dSprites item superimposed on a digit grid, and three medical datasets.
Shengjie Luo, Tianlang Chen, Aditi S. Krishnapriyan
Developing equivariant neural networks for the E(3) group plays a pivotal role in modeling 3D data across real-world applications. Enforcing this equivariance primarily involves the tensor products of irreducible representations (irreps). However, the computational complexity of such operations increases significantly as higher-order tensors are used. In this work, we propose a systematic approach to substantially accelerate the computation of the tensor products of irreps. We mathematically connect the commonly used Clebsch-Gordan coefficients to the Gaunt coefficients, which are integrals of products of three spherical harmonics. Through Gaunt coefficients, the tensor product of irreps becomes equivalent to the multiplication between spherical functions represented by spherical harmonics. This perspective further allows us to change the basis for the equivariant operations from spherical harmonics to a 2D Fourier basis. Consequently, the multiplication between spherical functions represented by a 2D Fourier basis can be efficiently computed via the convolution theorem and Fast Fourier Transforms. This transformation reduces the complexity of full tensor products of irreps from $\mathcal{O}(L^6)$ to $\mathcal{O}(L^3)$, where $L$ is the max degree of irreps. Leveraging this approach, we introduce the Gaunt Tensor Product, which serves as a new method to construct efficient equivariant operations across different model architectures. Our experiments demonstrate both the superior efficiency and improved performance of our approach on a range of tasks. The code and models will be made publicly available.
Dehao Yuan, Furong Huang, Cornelia Fermuller, Yiannis Aloimonos
tl;dr: We propose a function encoder that converts its sample into a fixed-length vector. The encoding is robust to distribution and density variation of the sampling.
We propose Hyper-Dimensional Function Encoding (HDFE). Given samples of a continuous object (e.g. a function), HDFE produces an explicit vector representation of the given object, invariant to the sample distribution and density. Sample distribution and density invariance enables HDFE to consistently encode continuous objects regardless of their sampling, and therefore allows neural networks to receive continuous objects as inputs for machine learning tasks, such as classification and regression. Besides, HDFE does not require any training and is proved to map the object into an organized embedding space, which facilitates the training of the downstream tasks. In addition, the encoding is decodable, which enables neural networks to regress continuous objects by regressing their encodings. Therefore, HDFE serves as an interface for processing continuous objects. We apply HDFE to function-to-function mapping, where vanilla HDFE achieves competitive performance with the state-of-the-art algorithm. We apply HDFE to point cloud surface normal estimation, where a simple replacement from PointNet to HDFE leads to 12\% and 15\% error reductions in two benchmarks. In addition, by integrating HDFE into the PointNet-based SOTA network, we improve the SOTA baseline by 2.5\% and 1.7\% on the same benchmarks.
Faisal Hamman, Sanghamitra Dutta
tl;dr: This work presents an information-theoretic perspective to group fairness trade-offs in federated learning (FL)
This work presents an information-theoretic perspective to group fairness trade-offs in federated learning (FL) with respect to sensitive attributes, such as gender, race, etc. Existing works often focus on either \emph{global fairness} (overall disparity of the model across all clients) or \emph{local fairness} (disparity of the model at each client), without always considering their trade-offs. There is a lack of understanding of the interplay between global and local fairness in FL, particularly under data heterogeneity, and if and when one implies the other. To address this gap, we leverage a body of work in information theory called partial information decomposition (PID), which first identifies three sources of unfairness in FL, namely, \emph{Unique Disparity}, \emph{Redundant Disparity}, and \emph{Masked Disparity}. We demonstrate how these three disparities contribute to global and local fairness using canonical examples. This decomposition helps us derive fundamental limits on the trade-off between global and local fairness, highlighting where they agree or disagree. We introduce the \emph{Accuracy \& Global-Local Fairness Optimality Problem (AGLFOP)}, a convex optimization that defines the theoretical limits of accuracy and fairness trade-offs, identifying the best possible performance any FL strategy can attain given a dataset and client distribution. We also present experimental results on synthetic datasets and the ADULT dataset to support our theoretical findings.
Yongsheng Mei, Mahdi Imani, Tian Lan
tl;dr: Bayesian optimization method on Gaussian Cox process stochastic models for spatial temporal data analysis.
Bayesian optimization (BO) has established itself as a leading strategy for efficiently optimizing expensive-to-evaluate functions. Existing BO methods mostly rely on Gaussian process (GP) surrogate models and are not applicable to (doubly-stochastic) Gaussian Cox processes, where the observation process is modulated by a latent intensity function modeled as a GP. In this paper, we propose a novel maximum *a posteriori* inference of Gaussian Cox processes. It leverages the Laplace approximation and change of kernel technique to transform the problem into a new reproducing kernel Hilbert space, where it becomes more tractable computationally. It enables us to obtain both a functional posterior of the latent intensity function and the covariance of the posterior, thus extending existing works that often focus on specific link functions or estimating the posterior mean. Using the result, we propose a BO framework based on the Gaussian Cox process model and further develop a Nyström approximation for efficient computation. Extensive evaluations on various synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate significant improvement over state-of-the-art inference solutions for Gaussian Cox processes, as well as effective BO with a wide range of acquisition functions designed through the underlying Gaussian Cox process model.
Borui Zhang, Wenzhao Zheng, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu
Rigorousness and clarity are both essential for interpretations of DNNs to engender human trust. Path methods are commonly employed to generate rigorous attributions that satisfy three axioms. However, the meaning of attributions remains ambiguous due to distinct path choices. To address the ambiguity, we introduce Concentration Principle, which centrally allocates high attributions to indispensable features, thereby endowing aesthetic and sparsity. We then present SAMP, a model-agnostic interpreter, which efficiently searches the near-optimal path from a pre-defined set of manipulation paths. Moreover, we propose the infinitesimal constraint (IC) and momentum strategy (MS) to improve the rigorousness and optimality. Visualizations show that SAMP can precisely reveal DNNs by pinpointing salient image pixels. We also perform quantitative experiments and observe that our method significantly outperforms the counterparts.
Panagiotis Eustratiadis, Łukasz Dudziak, Da Li, Timothy Hospedales
tl;dr: A stochastic neural architecture search algorithm that searches for the optimal configuration of layers in a pre-trained backbone architecture, to be adapted or fine-tuned.
In few-shot recognition, a classifier that has been trained on one set of classes is required to rapidly adapt and generalize to a disjoint, novel set of classes. To that end, recent studies have shown the efficacy of fine-tuning with carefully-crafted adaptation architectures. However this raises the question of: How can one design the optimal adaptation strategy? In this paper, we study this question through the lens of neural architecture search (NAS). Given a pre-trained neural network, our algorithm discovers the optimal arrangement of adapters, which layers to keep frozen, and which to fine-tune. We demonstrate the generality of our NAS method by applying it to both residual networks and vision transformers and report state-of-the-art performance on Meta-Dataset and Meta-Album.
Yuan Feng, Yukun Cao, Wang Hairu, Xike Xie, S Kevin Zhou
tl;dr: a Neural Data Structure for Graph Stream Summarization
A graph is a structure made up of vertices and edges used to represent complex relationships between entities, while a graph stream is a continuous flow of graph updates that convey evolving relationships between entities. The massive volume and high dynamism of graph streams promote research on data structures of graph summarization, which provides a concise and approximate view of graph streams with sub-linear space and linear construction time, enabling real-time graph analytics in various domains, such as social networking, financing, and cybersecurity. In this work, we propose the Mayfly, the first neural data structure for summarizing graph streams. The Mayfly replaces handcrafted data structures with better accuracy and adaptivity. To cater to practical applications, Mayfly incorporates two offline training phases. During the larval phase, the Mayfly learns basic summarization abilities from automatically and synthetically constituted meta-tasks, and in the metamorphosis phase, it rapidly adapts to real graph streams via meta-tasks. With specific configurations of information pathways, the Mayfly enables flexible support for miscellaneous graph queries, including edge, node, and connectivity queries. Extensive empirical studies show that the Mayfly significantly outperforms its handcrafted competitors.
Niklas Muennighoff, Qian Liu, Armel Randy Zebaze, Qinkai Zheng, Binyuan Hui, Terry Yue Zhuo, Swayam Singh, Xiangru Tang, Leandro Von Werra, Shayne Longpre
tl;dr: Data, models and evaluation for instruction tuning code large language models
Finetuning large language models (LLMs) on instructions leads to vast performance improvements on natural language tasks. We apply instruction tuning using code, leveraging the natural structure of Git commits, which pair code changes with human instructions. We compile CommitPack: 4 terabytes of Git commits across 350 programming languages. We benchmark CommitPack against other natural and synthetic code instructions (xP3x, Self-Instruct, OASST) on the 16B parameter StarCoder model, and achieve state-of-the-art performance among models not trained on OpenAI outputs, on the HumanEval Python benchmark (46.2% pass@1). We further introduce HumanEvalPack, expanding the HumanEval benchmark to a total of 3 coding tasks (Code Repair, Code Explanation, Code Synthesis) across 6 languages (Python, JavaScript, Java, Go, C++, Rust). Our models, OctoCoder and OctoGeeX, achieve the best performance across HumanEvalPack among all permissive models, demonstrating CommitPack's benefits in generalizing to a wider set of languages and natural coding tasks. Code, models and data are freely available at https://github.com/bigcode-project/octopack.
Omar Khattab, Arnav Singhvi, Paridhi Maheshwari, Zhiyuan Zhang, Keshav Santhanam, Sri Vardhamanan A, Saiful Haq, Ashutosh Sharma, Thomas T. Joshi, Hanna Moazam, Heather Miller, Matei Zaharia, Christopher Potts
tl;dr: We propose a programming model that unifies LM prompting, finetuning, and augmentation techniques. We evaluate simple strategies to bootstrap and optimize complex and multi-stage reasoning chains, establishing strong results with small and large LMs.
The ML community is rapidly exploring techniques for prompting language models (LMs) and for stacking them into pipelines that solve complex tasks. Unfortunately, existing LM pipelines are typically implemented using hard-coded “prompt templates”, i.e. lengthy strings discovered via trial and error. Toward a more systematic approach for developing and optimizing LM pipelines, we introduce DSPy, a programming model that abstracts LM pipelines as text transformation graphs, or imperative computational graphs where LMs are invoked through declarative modules. DSPy modules are parameterized, meaning they can learn (by creating and collecting demonstrations) how to apply compositions of prompting, finetuning, augmentation, and reasoning techniques. We design a compiler that will optimize any DSPy pipeline to maximize a given metric. We conduct two case studies, showing that succinct DSPy programs can express and optimize sophisticated LM pipelines that reason about math word problems, tackle multi-hop retrieval, answer complex questions, and control agent loops. Within minutes of compiling, DSPy can automatically produce prompt pipelines and finetune pipelines that outperform out-of-the-box few-shot prompting as well as expert-created demonstrations for GPT-3.5 and Llama2-13b-chat. On top of that, DSPy programs compiled to relatively small LMs like 770M parameter T5 and Llama2- 13b-chat are competitive with many approaches that rely on large and proprietary LMs like GPT-3.5 and on expert-written prompt chains.
Shengjie Zhou, Lue Tao, Yuzhou Cao, Tao Xiang, Bo An, Lei Feng
tl;dr: We disclose that adversarially trained models are vulnerable to two-faced attacks, where slightly perturbed features of input data can make the model exhibit a false sense of robustness.
Adversarial robustness is an important standard for measuring the quality of learned models, and adversarial training is an effective strategy for improving the adversarial robustness of models. In this paper, we disclose that adversarially trained models are vulnerable to two-faced attacks, where slight perturbations in input features are crafted to make the model exhibit a false sense of robustness in the verification phase. Such a threat is significantly important as it can mislead our evaluation of the adversarial robustness of models, which could cause unpredictable security issues when deploying substandard models in reality. More seriously, this threat seems to be pervasive and tricky: we find that many types of models suffer from this threat, and models with higher adversarial robustness tend to be more vulnerable. Furthermore, we provide the first attempt to formulate this threat, disclose its relationships with adversarial risk, and try to circumvent it via a simple countermeasure. These findings serve as a crucial reminder for practitioners to exercise caution in the verification phase, urging them to refrain from blindly trusting the exhibited adversarial robustness of models.
Seyed Iman Mirzadeh, Keivan Alizadeh-Vahid, Sachin Mehta, Carlo C del Mundo, Oncel Tuzel, Golnoosh Samei, Mohammad Rastegari, Mehrdad Farajtabar
Large Language Models (LLMs) with billions of parameters have drastically transformed AI applications. However, their demanding computation during inference has raised significant challenges for deployment on resource-constrained devices. Despite recent trends favoring alternative activation functions such as GELU or SiLU, known for increased computation, this study strongly advocates for reinstating ReLU activation in LLMs. We demonstrate that using the ReLU activation function has a negligible impact on convergence and performance while significantly reducing computation and weight transfer. This reduction is particularly valuable during the memory-bound inference step, where efficiency is paramount. Exploring sparsity patterns in ReLU-based LLMs, we unveil the reutilization of activated neurons for generating new tokens and leveraging these insights, we propose practical strategies to substantially reduce LLM inference computation up to three times, using ReLU activations with minimal performance trade-offs.
Hongbin Huang, Minghua Chen, Xiao Qiao
Limited data availability poses a major obstacle in training deep learning models for financial applications. Synthesizing financial time series to augment real-world data is challenging due to the irregular and scale-invariant patterns uniquely associated with financial time series - temporal dynamics that repeat with varying duration and magnitude. Such dynamics cannot be captured by existing approaches, which often assume regularity and uniformity in the underlying data. We develop a novel generative framework called FTS-Diffusion to model irregular and scale-invariant patterns that consists of three modules. First, we develop a scale-invariant pattern recognition algorithm to extract recurring patterns that vary in duration and magnitude. Second, we construct a diffusion-based generative network to synthesize segments of patterns. Third, we model the temporal transition of patterns in order to aggregate the generated segments. Extensive experiments show that FTS-Diffusion generates synthetic financial time series highly resembling observed data, outperforming state-of-the-art alternatives. Two downstream experiments demonstrate that augmenting real-world data with synthetic data generated by FTS-Diffusion reduces the error of stock market prediction by up to 17.9%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on generating intricate time series with irregular and scale-invariant patterns, addressing data limitation issues in finance.
Joe Benton, Valentin De Bortoli, Arnaud Doucet, George Deligiannidis
tl;dr: We provide the first convergence bounds for diffusion models assuming only finite second moments of the data distribution and an L2-accurate score estimate, using tools from stochastic localization.
Denoising diffusions are a powerful method to generate approximate samples from high-dimensional data distributions. Recent results provide polynomial bounds on their convergence rate, assuming $L^2$-accurate scores. Until now, the tightest bounds were either superlinear in the data dimension or required strong smoothness assumptions. We provide the first convergence bounds which are linear in the data dimension (up to logarithmic factors) assuming only finite second moments of the data distribution. We show that diffusion models require at most $\tilde O(\frac{d \log^2(1/\delta)}{\varepsilon^2})$ steps to approximate an arbitrary distribution on $\mathbb{R}^d$ corrupted with Gaussian noise of variance $\delta$ to within $\varepsilon^2$ in KL divergence. Our proof extends the Girsanov-based methods of previous works. We introduce a refined treatment of the error from discretizing the reverse SDE inspired by stochastic localization.
Haoyue Dai, Ignavier Ng, Gongxu Luo, Petar Stojanov, Peter Spirtes, Kun Zhang
tl;dr: The conditional independence (CI) relations in the data with dropouts, after deleting the samples with zero values for conditioned variables, are identical to the CI relations in the original data without dropout.
Gene regulatory network inference (GRNI) is a challenging problem, particularly owing to the presence of zeros in single-cell RNA sequencing data: some are biological zeros representing no gene expression, while some others are technical zeros arising from the sequencing procedure (aka dropouts), which may bias GRNI by distorting the joint distribution of the measured gene expressions. Existing approaches typically handle dropout error via imputation, which may introduce spurious relations as the true joint distribution is generally unidentifiable. To tackle this issue, we introduce a causal graphical model to characterize the dropout mechanism, namely, Causal Dropout Model. We provide a simple yet effective theoretical result: interestingly, the conditional independence (CI) relations in the data with dropouts, after deleting the samples with zero values (regardless if technical or not) for the conditioned variables, are asymptotically identical to the CI relations in the original data without dropouts. This particular test-wise deletion procedure, in which we perform CI tests on the samples without zeros for the conditioned variables, can be seamlessly integrated with existing structure learning approaches including constraint-based and greedy score-based methods, thus giving rise to a principled framework for GRNI in the presence of dropouts. We further show that the causal dropout model can be validated from data, and many existing statistical models to handle dropouts fit into our model as specific parametric instances. Empirical evaluation on synthetic, curated, and real-world experimental transcriptomic data comprehensively demonstrate the efficacy of our method.
Yucen Lily Li, Tim G. J. Rudner, Andrew Gordon Wilson
tl;dr: We conduct a study of Bayesian neural networks as surrogate models for Bayesian optimization.
Bayesian optimization is a highly efficient approach to optimizing objective functions which are expensive to query. These objectives are typically represented by Gaussian process (GP) surrogate models which are easy to optimize and support exact inference. While standard GP surrogates have been well-established in Bayesian optimization, Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) have recently become practical function approximators, with many benefits over standard GPs such as the ability to naturally handle non-stationarity and learn representations for high-dimensional data. In this paper, we study BNNs as alternatives to standard GP surrogates for optimization. We consider a variety of approximate inference procedures for finite-width BNNs, including high-quality Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, low-cost stochastic MCMC, and heuristics such as deep ensembles. We also consider infinite-width BNNs, linearized Laplace approximations, and partially stochastic models such as deep kernel learning. We evaluate this collection of surrogate models on diverse problems with varying dimensionality, number of objectives, non-stationarity, and discrete and continuous inputs. We find: (i) the ranking of methods is highly problem dependent, suggesting the need for tailored inductive biases; (ii) HMC is the most successful approximate inference procedure for fully stochastic BNNs; (iii) full stochasticity may be unnecessary as deep kernel learning is relatively competitive; (iv) deep ensembles perform relatively poorly; (v) infinite-width BNNs are particularly promising, especially in high dimensions.
Jingcheng Niu, Andrew Liu, Zining Zhu, Gerald Penn
We reassess the Knowledge Neuron (KN) Thesis: an interpretation of the mechanism underlying the ability of large language models to recall facts from a training corpus. This nascent thesis proposes that facts are recalled from the training corpus through the MLP weights in a manner resembling key-value memory, implying in effect that "knowledge" is stored in the network. Furthermore, by modifying the MLP modules, one can control the language model's generation of factual information. The plausibility of the KN thesis has been demonstrated by the success of KN-inspired model editing methods (Dai et al., 2022; Meng et al., 2022). We find that this thesis is, at best, an oversimplification. Not only have we found that we can edit the expression of certain linguistic phenomena using the same model editing methods but, through a more comprehensive evaluation, we have found that the KN thesis does not adequately explain the process of factual expression. While it is possible to argue that the MLP weights store complex patterns that are interpretable both syntactically and semantically, these patterns do not constitute "knowledge." To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the knowledge representation process, we must look beyond the MLP weights and explore recent models' complex layer structures and attention mechanisms.
Yixiao Li, Yifan Yu, Chen Liang, Nikos Karampatziakis, Pengcheng He, Weizhu Chen, Tuo Zhao
Quantization is an indispensable technique for serving Large Language Models (LLMs) and has recently found its way into LoRA fine-tuning (Dettmers et al., 2023). In this work we focus on the scenario where quantization and LoRA fine- tuning are applied together on a pre-trained model. In such cases it is common to observe a consistent gap in the performance on downstream tasks between full fine-tuning and quantization plus LoRA fine-tuning approach. In response, we propose LoftQ (LoRA-Fine-Tuning-aware Quantization), a novel quantization framework that simultaneously quantizes an LLM and finds a proper low-rank initialization for LoRA fine-tuning. Such an initialization alleviates the discrep- ancy between the quantized and full-precision model and significantly improves the generalization in downstream tasks. We evaluate our method on natural lan- guage understanding, question answering, summarization, and natural language generation tasks. Experiments show that our method is highly effective and out- performs existing quantization methods, especially in the challenging 2-bit and 2/4-bit mixed precision regimes. We will release our code.
Yaoming Wang, Jin Li, XIAOPENG ZHANG, Bowen Shi, Chenglin Li, Wenrui Dai, Hongkai Xiong, Qi Tian
Pre-training followed by full fine-tuning has gradually been substituted by Parameter-Efficient Tuning (PET) in the field of computer vision tasks. PET has gained popularity, especially in the context of large-scale models, due to its ability to reduce transfer learning costs and conserve hardware resources. However, existing PET approaches primarily focus on recognition tasks and typically support uni-modal optimization, neglecting dense prediction tasks and vision language interactions. To address this limitation, we propose a novel PET framework called Bi-directional Intertwined Vision Language Efficient Tuning for Referring Image Segmentation (BarLeRIa), which leverages bi-directional intertwined vision language adapters to fully exploit the frozen pre-trained models' potential in cross-modal dense prediction tasks. In BarLeRIa, two different tuning modules are employed for efficient global and local attention, as well as an intertwined vision language tuning algorithm for efficient modal fusion. Extensive experiments conducted on challenging RefCOCO-related benchmarks demonstrating the superiority of BarLeRIa over prior PET methods with a significant margin, \emph{i.e.}, achieving an average improvement of 5.6\%. Remarkably, without requiring additional training datasets, BarLeRIa even surpasses SOTA full fine-tuning approaches.
Seonghyeon Ye, Doyoung Kim, Sungdong Kim, Hyeonbin Hwang, Seungone Kim, Yongrae Jo, James Thorne, Juho Kim, Minjoon Seo
tl;dr: We introduce fine-grained language model evaluation based on alignment skill sets to measure the performance of various LLMs.
Evaluation of Large Language Models (LLMs) is challenging because instruction-following necessitates alignment with human values and the required set of skills varies depending on the instruction. However, previous studies have mainly focused on coarse-grained evaluation (i.e. overall preference-based evaluation), which limits interpretability since it does not consider the nature of user instructions that require instance-wise skill composition. In this paper, we introduce FLASK (Fine-grained Language Model Evaluation based on Alignment Skill Sets), a fine-grained evaluation protocol for both human-based and model-based evaluation which decomposes coarse-level scoring to a skill set-level scoring for each instruction. We experimentally observe that the fine-graininess of evaluation is crucial for attaining a holistic view of model performance and increasing the reliability of the evaluation. Using FLASK, we compare multiple open-source and proprietary LLMs and observe a high correlation between model-based and human-based evaluations.
Chenhao Li, Elijah Stanger-Jones, Steve Heim, Sang bae Kim
Motion trajectories offer reliable references for physics-based motion learning but suffer from sparsity, particularly in regions that lack sufficient data coverage. To address this challenge, we introduce a self-supervised, structured representation and generation method that extracts spatial-temporal relationships in periodic or quasi-periodic motions. The motion dynamics in a continuously parameterized latent space enable our method to enhance the interpolation and generalization capabilities of motion learning algorithms. The motion learning controller, informed by the motion parameterization, operates online tracking of a wide range of motions, including targets unseen during training. With a fallback mechanism, the controller dynamically adapts its tracking strategy and automatically resorts to safe action execution when a potentially risky target is proposed. By leveraging the identified spatial-temporal structure, our work opens new possibilities for future advancements in general motion representation and learning algorithms.
Antoine Gonon, Nicolas Brisebarre, Elisa Riccietti, Rémi Gribonval
tl;dr: We introduce the first path-norm toolkit encompassing modern DAG ReLU networks, leading to the sharpest known generalization bounds.
This work introduces the first toolkit around path-norms that fully encompasses general DAG ReLU networks with biases, skip connections and any operation based on the extraction of order statistics: max pooling, GroupSort etc. This toolkit notably allows us to establish generalization bounds for modern neural networks that are not only the most widely applicable path-norm based ones, but also recover or beat the sharpest known bounds of this type. These extended path-norms further enjoy the usual benefits of path-norms: ease of computation, invariance under the symmetries of the network, and improved sharpness on layered fully-connected networks compared to the product of operator norms, another complexity measure most commonly used. The versatility of the toolkit and its ease of implementation allow us to challenge the concrete promises of path-norm-based generalization bounds, by numerically evaluating the sharpest known bounds for ResNets on ImageNet.
Miltiadis Kofinas, Boris Knyazev, Yan Zhang, Yunlu Chen, Gertjan J. Burghouts, Efstratios Gavves, Cees G. M. Snoek, David W. Zhang
tl;dr: We propose graph neural networks that learn permutation equivariant representations of other neural networks
Neural networks that process the parameters of other neural networks find applications in domains as diverse as classifying implicit neural representations, generating neural network weights, and predicting generalization errors. However, existing approaches either overlook the inherent permutation symmetry in the neural network or rely on intricate weight-sharing patterns to achieve equivariance, while ignoring the impact of the network architecture itself. In this work, we propose to represent neural networks as computational graphs of parameters, which allows us to harness powerful graph neural networks and transformers that preserve permutation symmetry. Consequently, our approach enables a single model to encode neural computational graphs with diverse architectures. We showcase the effectiveness of our method on a wide range of tasks, including classification and editing of implicit neural representations, predicting generalization performance, and learning to optimize, while consistently outperforming state-of-the-art methods.
Fabian Akkerman, Julius Luy, Wouter van Heeswijk, Maximilian Schiffer
tl;dr: We propose a method to deal with structured large discrete action spaces in RL and benchmark it against several state-of-the-art methods on three domains.
Large discrete action spaces (LDAS) remain a central challenge in reinforcement learning. Existing solution approaches can handle unstructured LDAS with up to a few million actions. However, many real-world applications in logistics, production, and transportation systems have combinatorial action spaces, whose size grows well beyond millions of actions, even on small instances. Fortunately, such action spaces exhibit structure, e.g., equally spaced discrete resource units. With this work, we focus on handling structured LDAS (SLDAS) with sizes that cannot be handled by current benchmarks: we propose Dynamic Neighborhood Construction (DNC), a novel exploitation paradigm for SLDAS. We present a scalable neighborhood exploration heuristic that utilizes this paradigm and efficiently explores the discrete neighborhood around the continuous proxy action in structured action spaces with up to $10^{73}$ actions. We demonstrate the performance of our method by benchmarking it against three state-of-the-art approaches designed for large discrete action spaces across three distinct environments. Our results show that DNC matches or outperforms state-of-the-art approaches while being computationally more efficient. Furthermore, our method scales to action spaces that so far remained computationally intractable for existing methodologies.
Weibang Jiang, Liming Zhao, Bao-liang Lu
The current electroencephalogram (EEG) based deep learning models are typically designed for specific datasets and applications in brain-computer interaction (BCI), limiting the scale of the models and thus diminishing their perceptual capabilities and generalizability. Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved unprecedented success in text processing, prompting us to explore the capabilities of Large EEG Models (LEMs). We hope that LEMs can break through the limitations of different task types of EEG datasets, and obtain universal perceptual capabilities of EEG signals through unsupervised pre-training. Then the models can be fine-tuned for different downstream tasks. However, compared to text data, the volume of EEG datasets is generally small and the format varies widely. For example, there can be mismatched numbers of electrodes, unequal length data samples, varied task designs, and low signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome these challenges, we propose a unified foundation model for EEG called Large Brain Model (LaBraM). LaBraM enables cross-dataset learning by segmenting the EEG signals into EEG channel patches. Vector-quantized neural spectrum prediction is used to train a semantically rich neural tokenizer that encodes continuous raw EEG channel patches into compact neural codes. We then pre-train neural Transformers by predicting the original neural codes for the masked EEG channel patches. The LaBraMs were pre-trained on about 2,500 hours of various types of EEG signals from around 20 datasets and validated on multiple different types of downstream tasks. Experiments on abnormal detection, event type classification, emotion recognition, and gait prediction show that our LaBraM outperforms all compared SOTA methods in their respective fields. Our code is available at https://github.com/935963004/LaBraM.
Xudong Shen, Chao Du, Tianyu Pang, Min Lin, Yongkang Wong, Mohan Kankanhalli
tl;dr: A flexible and scalable supervised fine-tuning method is introduced to align the generated images of a text-to-image diffusion model with a fair distribution.
The rapid adoption of text-to-image (T2I) diffusion models in society underscores an urgent need to address their biases. Without interventions, these biases propagate a distorted worldview and limit opportunities for minority groups. In this work, we frame fairness as a distributional alignment problem. We propose to end-to-end finetune diffusion models using a distributional alignment loss, steering specific characteristics of the generated images towards a user-defined target distribution. Empirically, our method markedly reduces gender, racial, and their intersectional biases for occupational prompts. Gender bias can be substantially mitigated even when finetuning merely five soft tokens. Acknowledging strict egalitarianism might not always be the desired outcome for fairness, we show that our method can flexibly control age to a $75\\%$ young and $25\\%$ old distribution while simultaneously debiasing gender and race. Finally, our method is scalable: it can debias multiple concepts at once, such as occupations, sports, and personal descriptors, by simply including these prompts in the finetuning data. We hope our work facilitates the advancement of social alignment for T2I generative AI. We will share code and various debiased diffusion model adaptors.
zhengyao jiang, Yingchen Xu, Nolan Wagener, Yicheng Luo, Michael Janner, Edward Grefenstette, Tim Rocktäschel, Yuandong Tian
tl;dr: We present Humanoid Generalist Autoencoding Planner (H-GAP), a state-action trajectory generative model capable of adeptly handling downstream control tasks with Model Predictive Control.
Humanoid control is an important research challenge offering avenues for integration into human-centric infrastructures and enabling physics-driven humanoid animations. The daunting challenges in this field stem from the difficulty of optimizing in high-dimensional action spaces and the instability introduced by the bipedal morphology of humanoids. However, the extensive collection of human motion-captured data and the derived datasets of humanoid trajectories, such as MoCapAct, paves the way to tackle these challenges. In this context, we present Humanoid Generalist Autoencoding Planner (H-GAP), a state-action trajectory generative model trained on humanoid trajectories derived from human motion-captured data, capable of adeptly handling downstream control tasks with Model Predictive Control (MPC). For 56 degrees of freedom humanoid, we empirically demonstrate that H-GAP learns to represent and generate a wide range of motor behaviors. Further, without any learning from online interactions, it can also flexibly transfer these behaviours to solve novel downstream control tasks via planning. Notably, H-GAP excels established MPC baselines with access to the ground truth model, and is superior or comparable to offline RL methods trained for individual tasks. Finally, we do a series of empirical studies on the scaling properties of H-GAP, showing the potential for performance gains via additional data but not computing.
Tim Franzmeyer, Stephen Marcus McAleer, Joao F. Henriques, Jakob Nicolaus Foerster, Philip Torr, Adel Bibi, Christian Schroeder de Witt
Autonomous agents deployed in the real world need to be robust against adversarial attacks on sensory inputs. Robustifying agent policies requires anticipating the strongest attacks possible. We demonstrate that existing observation-space attacks on reinforcement learning agents have a common weakness: while effective, their lack of information-theoretic detectability constraints makes them \textit{detectable} using automated means or human inspection. Detectability is undesirable to adversaries as it may trigger security escalations. We introduce \textit{$\epsilon$-illusory attacks}, a novel form of adversarial attack on sequential decision-makers that is both effective and of $\epsilon$-bounded statistical detectability. We propose a novel dual ascent algorithm to learn such attacks end-to-end. Compared to existing attacks, we empirically find $\epsilon$-illusory attacks to be significantly harder to detect with automated methods, and a small study with human subjects\footnote{IRB approval under reference XXXXX/XXXXX} suggests they are similarly harder to detect for humans. Our findings suggest the need for better anomaly detectors, as well as effective hardware- and system-level defenses.
Evan Hernandez, Arnab Sen Sharma, Tal Haklay, Kevin Meng, Martin Wattenberg, Jacob Andreas, Yonatan Belinkov, David Bau
Much of the knowledge encoded in transformer language models (LMs) may be expressed in terms of relations: relations between words and their synonyms, entities and their attributes, etc. We show that, for a subset of relations, this computation is well-approximated by a single linear transformation on the subject representation. Linear relation representations may be obtained by constructing a first-order approximation to the LM from a single prompt, and they exist for a variety of factual, commonsense, and linguistic relations. However, we also identify many cases in which LM predictions capture relational knowledge accurately, but this knowledge is not linearly encoded in their representations. Our results thus reveal a simple, interpretable, but heterogeneously deployed knowledge representation strategy in transformer LMs.
Erdun Gao, Howard Bondell, Wei Huang, Mingming Gong
Estimating treatment effects has numerous real-world applications in various fields, such as epidemiology and political science. While much attention has been devoted to addressing the challenge using fully observational data, there has been comparatively limited exploration of this issue in cases when the treatment is not directly observed. In this paper, we tackle this problem by developing a general variational framework, which is flexible to integrate with advanced neural network-based approaches, to identify the average dose-response function (ADRF) with the continuously valued error-contaminated treatment. Our approach begins with the formulation of a probabilistic data generation model, treating the unobserved treatment as a latent variable. In this model, we leverage a learnable density estimation neural network to derive its prior distribution conditioned on covariates. This module also doubles as a generalized propensity score estimator, effectively mitigating selection bias arising from observed confounding variables. Subsequently, we calculate the posterior distribution of the treatment, taking into account the observed measurement and outcome. To mitigate the impact of treatment error, we introduce a re-parametrized treatment value, replacing the error-affected one, to make more accurate predictions regarding the outcome. To demonstrate the adaptability of our framework, we incorporate two state-of-the-art ADRF estimation methods and rigorously assess its efficacy through extensive simulations and experiments using semi-synthetic data.
Changmao Li, Jeffrey Flanigan
tl;dr: We propose the task of future language modeling and develop several models for this task, outperforming strong non-temporal baselines.
Predicting the future is of great interest across many aspects of human activity. Businesses are interested in future trends, traders are interested in future stock prices, and companies are highly interested in future technological breakthroughs. While there are many automated systems for predicting future numerical data, such as weather, stock prices, and demand for products, there is relatively little work in automatically predicting textual data. Humans are interested in textual data predictions because it is a natural format for our consumption, and experts routinely make predictions in a textual format (Christensen et al., 2004; Tetlock & Gardner, 2015; Frick, 2015). However, there has been relatively little formalization of this general problem in the machine learning or natural language processing communities. To address this gap, we introduce the task of future language modeling: probabilistic modeling of texts in the future based on a temporal history of texts. To our knowledge, our work is the first work to formalize the task of predicting the future in this way. We show that it is indeed possible to build future language models that improve upon strong non-temporal language model baselines, opening the door to working on this important, and widely applicable problem.
Lucas Dax Lingle
tl;dr: Simple, efficient, and stable decoder-only attention via vector quantization
We introduce Transformer-VQ, a decoder-only transformer computing softmax-based dense self-attention in linear time. Transformer-VQ's efficient attention is enabled by vector-quantized keys and a novel caching mechanism. In our large-scale experiments, Transformer-VQ is shown highly competitive in quality, obtaining 0.99 bpb on Enwik8, 26.6 ppl on PG-19, and 3.16 bpb on ImageNet64. In addition, the optimized implementation of Transformer-VQ is over 3x faster than a comparable quadratic-time transformer at sequence length 8k, is over 12x faster at 32k, and can scale to 131k with similar throughput. Code available: \url{https://github.com/transformer-vq/transformer_vq}
Huafeng Qin, Xin Jin, Yun Jiang, Mounîm El-Yacoubi, Xinbo Gao
Data mixing augmentation has been widely applied to improve the generalization ability of deep neural networks. Recently, offline data mixing augmentation, e.g. handcrafted and saliency information-based mixup, has been gradually replaced by automatic mixing approaches. Through minimizing two sub-tasks, namely, mixed sample generation and mixup classification in an end-to-end way, AutoMix significantly improves accuracy on image classification tasks. However, as the optimization objective is consistent for the two sub-tasks, this approach is prone to generating consistent instead of diverse mixed samples, which results in overfitting for target task training. In this paper, we propose AdAutomixup, an adversarial automatic mixup augmentation approach that generates challenging samples to train a robust classifier for image classification, by alternatively optimizing the classifier and the mixup sample generator. AdAutomixup comprises two modules, a mixed example generator, and a target classifier. The mixed sample generator aims to produce hard mixed examples to challenge the target classifier, while the target classifier's aim is to learn robust features from hard mixed examples to improve generalization. To prevent the collapse of the inherent meanings of images, we further introduce an exponential moving average (EMA) teacher and cosine similarity to train AdAutomixup in an end-to-end way. Extensive experiments on seven image benchmarks consistently prove that our approach outperforms the state of the art in various classification scenarios. The source code is available at https://github.com/JinXins/Adversarial-AutoMixup.
Zhiwei Li, Guodong Long, Tianyi Zhou
tl;dr: We present a novel federated recommendation system, named FedRAP, incorporating additive personalization to enhance the performance of recommendation systems in a federated setting.
Building recommendation systems via federated learning (FL) is a new emerging challenge for next-generation Internet service. Existing FL models share item embedding across clients while keeping the user embedding private and local on the client side. However, identical item embedding cannot capture users' individual differences in perceiving the same item and may lead to poor personalization. Moreover, dense item embedding in FL results in expensive communication costs and latency. To address these challenges, we propose Federated Recommendation withAdditive Personalization (FedRAP), which learns a global view of items via FL and a personalized view locally on each user. FedRAP encourages a sparse global view to save FL's communication cost and enforces the two views to be complementary via two regularizers. We propose an effective curriculum to learn the local and global views progressively with increasing regularization weights. To produce recommendations for a user, FedRAP adds the two views together to obtain a personalized item embedding. FedRAP achieves the best performance in FL setting on multiple benchmarks. It outperforms recent federated recommendation methods and several ablation study baselines. Our code is available at https://github.com/mtics/FedRAP.
Weian Mao, Zheng Sun, Muzhi Zhu, Shuaike Shen, Lin Yuanbo Wu, Hao Chen, Chunhua Shen
Advances like protein diffusion have marked revolutionary progress in $\textit{de novo}$ protein design, a central topic in life science. These methods typically depend on protein structure encoders to model residue backbone frames, where atoms do not exist. Most prior encoders rely on atom-wise features, such as angles and distances between atoms, which are not available in this context. Only a few basic encoders, like IPA, have been proposed for this scenario, exposing the frame modeling as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce the Vector Field Network (VFN), that enables network layers to perform learnable vector computations between coordinates of frame-anchored virtual atoms, thus achieving a higher capability for modeling frames. The vector computation operates in a manner similar to a linear layer, with each input channel receiving 3D virtual atom coordinates instead of scalar values. The multiple feature vectors output by the vector computation are then used to update the residue representations and virtual atom coordinates via attention aggregation. Remarkably, VFN also excels in modeling both frames and atoms, as the real atoms can be treated as the virtual atoms for modeling, positioning VFN as a potential $\textit{universal encoder}$. In protein diffusion (frame modeling), VFN exhibits a impressive performance advantage over IPA, excelling in terms of both designability ($\textbf{67.04}$\% vs. 53.58\%) and diversity ($\textbf{66.54}$\% vs. 51.98\%). In inverse folding(frame and atom modeling), VFN outperforms the previous SoTA model, PiFold ($\textbf{54.7}$\% vs. 51.66\%), on sequence recovery rate; we also propose a method of equipping VFN with the ESM model, which significantly surpasses the previous ESM-based SoTA ($\textbf{62.67}$\% vs. 55.65\%), LM-Design, by a substantial margin.
Noa Cohen, Hila Manor, Yuval Bahat, Tomer Michaeli
tl;dr: We highlight the inherent conceptual problem in posterior sampling for image restoration. We examine the source of the problem and propose different ways to obtain more meaningfully diverse restorations, as confirmed by an extensive user study.
Image restoration problems are typically ill-posed in the sense that each degraded image can be restored in infinitely many valid ways. To accommodate this, many works generate a diverse set of outputs by attempting to randomly sample from the posterior distribution of natural images given the degraded input. Here we argue that this strategy is commonly of limited practical value because of the heavy tail of the posterior distribution. Consider for example inpainting a missing region of the sky in an image. Since there is a high probability that the missing region contains no object but clouds, any set of samples from the posterior would be entirely dominated by (practically identical) completions of sky. However, arguably, presenting users with only one clear sky completion, along with several alternative solutions such as airships, birds, and balloons, would better outline the set of possibilities. In this paper, we initiate the study of **meaningfully diverse** image restoration. We explore several post-processing approaches that can be combined with any diverse image restoration method to yield semantically meaningful diversity. Moreover, we propose a practical approach for allowing diffusion based image restoration methods to generate meaningfully diverse outputs, while incurring only negligent computational overhead. We conduct extensive user studies to analyze the proposed techniques, and find the strategy of reducing similarity between outputs to be significantly favorable over posterior sampling. Code and examples are available on the [project's webpage](https://noa-cohen.github.io/MeaningfulDiversityInIR/).
Haoqi Yuan, Zhancun Mu, Feiyang Xie, Zongqing Lu
Pre-training on task-agnostic large datasets is a promising approach for enhancing the sample efficiency of reinforcement learning (RL) in solving complex tasks. We present PTGM, a novel method that pre-trains goal-based models to augment RL by providing temporal abstractions and behavior regularization. PTGM involves pre-training a low-level, goal-conditioned policy and training a high-level policy to generate goals for subsequent RL tasks. To address the challenges posed by the high-dimensional goal space, while simultaneously maintaining the agent's capability to accomplish various skills, we propose clustering goals in the dataset to form a discrete high-level action space. Additionally, we introduce a pre-trained goal prior model to regularize the behavior of the high-level policy in RL, enhancing sample efficiency and learning stability. Experimental results in a robotic simulation environment and the challenging open-world environment of Minecraft demonstrate PTGM’s superiority in sample efficiency and task performance compared to baselines. Moreover, PTGM exemplifies enhanced interpretability and generalization of the acquired low-level skills.
Bobby He, Thomas Hofmann
tl;dr: We use signal propagation and empirical insights to remove various components of the transformer block without loss of training speed, including: skip connections, values and projections parameters.
A simple design recipe for deep Transformers is to compose identical building blocks. But standard transformer blocks are far from simple, interweaving attention and MLP sub-blocks with skip connections \& normalisation layers in precise arrangements. This complexity leads to brittle architectures, where seemingly minor changes can significantly reduce training speed, or render models untrainable. In this work, we ask to what extent the standard transformer block can be simplified? Combining signal propagation theory and empirical observations, we motivate modifications that allow many block components to be removed with no loss of training speed, including skip connections, projection or value parameters, sequential sub-blocks and normalisation layers. In experiments on both autoregressive decoder-only and BERT encoder-only models, our simplified transformers match the per-iteration training speed and performance of standard transformers, while enjoying 15\% faster training throughput, and using 15\% fewer parameters.
Sergei Solonets, Daniil Sinitsyn, Lukas Von Stumberg, Nikita Araslanov, Daniel Cremers
Direct image alignment is a widely used technique for relative 6DoF pose estimation between two images, but its accuracy strongly depends on pose initialization. Therefore, recent end-to-end frameworks focused on training objectives, such as the Gauss-Newton loss, which increase the convergence basin of the learned feature descriptors. However, the training data may be biased toward a specific type of motion and pose initialization, thus limiting the generalization of these methods. In this work, we derive a closed-form solution to the expected optimum of the Gauss-Newton loss. The solution is agnostic to the underlying feature representation and allows us to dynamically adjust the basin of convergence according to our assumptions about the uncertainty in the current estimates. This offers effective control over the convergence properties of the algorithm. Despite using self-supervised feature embeddings, our solution achieves compelling accuracy w.r.t. the state-of-the-art direct image alignment methods trained end-to-end with pose supervision, and exhibits improved robustness to pose initialization. Our analytical solution provides insight into the inherent limitations of end-to-end learning with the Gauss-Newton loss and establishes an intriguing connection between direct image alignment and feature-matching approaches.
Juno Kim, Jaehyuk Kwon, Mincheol Cho, Hyunjong Lee, Joong-Ho Won
The variational autoencoder (VAE) typically employs a standard normal prior as a regularizer for the probabilistic latent encoder. However, the Gaussian tail often decays too quickly to effectively accommodate the encoded points, failing to preserve crucial structures hidden in the data. In this paper, we explore the use of heavy-tailed models to combat over-regularization. Drawing upon insights from information geometry, we propose $t^3$VAE, a modified VAE framework that incorporates Student's t-distributions for the prior, encoder, and decoder. This results in a joint model distribution of a power form which we argue can better fit real-world datasets. We derive a new objective by reformulating the evidence lower bound as joint optimization of KL divergence between two statistical manifolds and replacing with $\gamma$-power divergence, a natural alternative for power families. $t^3$VAE demonstrates superior generation of low-density regions when trained on heavy-tailed synthetic data. Furthermore, we show that $t^3$VAE significantly outperforms other models on CelebA and imbalanced CIFAR-100 datasets.
Theo X. Olausson, Jeevana Priya Inala, Chenglong Wang, Jianfeng Gao, Armando Solar-Lezama
tl;dr: We study self-repair for code generation, finding that gains are often marginal and quite inconsistent, and offer several insights as to why.
Large language models have shown remarkable aptitude in code generation, but still struggle to perform complex tasks. Self-repair---in which the model debugs and repairs its own code---has recently become a popular way to boost performance in these settings. However, despite its increasing popularity, existing studies of self-repair have been limited in scope; in many settings, its efficacy thus remains poorly understood. In this paper, we analyze Code Llama, GPT-3.5 and GPT-4's ability to perform self-repair on problems taken from HumanEval and APPS. We find that when the cost of carrying out repair is taken into account, performance gains are often modest, vary a lot between subsets of the data, and are sometimes not present at all. We hypothesize that this is because self-repair is bottlenecked by the model's ability to provide feedback on its own code; using a stronger model to artificially boost the quality of the feedback, we observe substantially larger performance gains. Similarly, a small-scale study in which we provide GPT-4 with feedback from human participants suggests that even for the strongest models, self-repair still lags far behind what can be achieved with human-level debugging.
Jin Su, Chenchen Han, Yuyang Zhou, Junjie Shan, Xibin Zhou, Fajie Yuan
Large-scale protein language models (PLMs), such as the ESM family, have achieved remarkable performance in various downstream tasks related to protein structure and function by undergoing unsupervised training on residue sequences. They have become essential tools for researchers and practitioners in biology. However, a limitation of vanilla PLMs is their lack of explicit consideration for protein structure information, which suggests the potential for further improvement. Motivated by this, we introduce the concept of a ``structure-aware vocabulary" that integrates residue tokens with structure tokens. The structure tokens are derived by encoding the 3D structure of proteins using Foldseek. We then propose SaProt, a large-scale general-purpose PLM trained on an extensive dataset comprising approximately 40 million protein sequences and structures. Through extensive evaluation, our SaProt model surpasses well-established and renowned baselines across 10 significant downstream tasks, demonstrating its exceptional capacity and broad applicability. We have made the code, pre-trained model, and all relevant materials available at https://github.com/westlake-repl/SaProt.
Byeongjun Park, Sangmin Woo, Hyojun Go, Jin-Young Kim, Changick Kim
tl;dr: Simple add-on strategy improves diffusion model architectures by explicitly routing denoising tasks in diffusion models.
Diffusion models generate highly realistic images by learning a multi-step denoising process, naturally embodying the principles of multi-task learning (MTL). Despite the inherent connection between diffusion models and MTL, there remains an unexplored area in designing neural architectures that explicitly incorporate MTL into the framework of diffusion models. In this paper, we present Denoising Task Routing (DTR), a simple add-on strategy for existing diffusion model architectures to establish distinct information pathways for individual tasks within a single architecture by selectively activating subsets of channels in the model. What makes DTR particularly compelling is its seamless integration of prior knowledge of denoising tasks into the framework: (1) Task Affinity: DTR activates similar channels for tasks at adjacent timesteps and shifts activated channels as sliding windows through timesteps, capitalizing on the inherent strong affinity between tasks at adjacent timesteps. (2) Task Weights: During the early stages (higher timesteps) of the denoising process, DTR assigns a greater number of task-specific channels, leveraging the insight that diffusion models prioritize reconstructing global structure and perceptually rich contents in earlier stages, and focus on simple noise removal in later stages. Our experiments reveal that DTR not only consistently boosts diffusion models' performance across different evaluation protocols without adding extra parameters but also accelerates training convergence. Finally, we show the complementarity between our architectural approach and existing MTL optimization techniques, providing a more complete view of MTL in the context of diffusion training. Significantly, by leveraging this complementarity, we attain matched performance of DiT-XL using the smaller DiT-L with a reduction in training iterations from 7M to 2M. Our project page is available at https://byeongjun-park.github.io/DTR/
Haoning Wu, Zicheng Zhang, Erli Zhang, Chaofeng Chen, Liang Liao, Annan Wang, Chunyi Li, Wenxiu Sun, Qiong Yan, Guangtao Zhai, Weisi Lin
tl;dr: We propose the first systematical benchmark for multi-modality LLMs (MLLMs) on low-level computer vision.
The rapid evolution of Multi-modality Large Language Models (MLLMs) has catalyzed a shift in computer vision from specialized models to general-purpose foundation models. Nevertheless, there is still an inadequacy in assessing the abilities of MLLMs on **low-level visual perception and understanding**. To address this gap, we present **Q-Bench**, a holistic benchmark crafted to systematically evaluate potential abilities of MLLMs on three realms: low-level visual perception, low-level visual description, and overall visual quality assessment. **_a)_** To evaluate the low-level **_perception_** ability, we construct the **LLVisionQA** dataset, consisting of 2,990 diverse-sourced images, each equipped with a human-asked question focusing on its low-level attributes. We then measure the correctness of MLLMs on answering these questions. **_b)_** To examine the **_description_** ability of MLLMs on low-level information, we propose the **LLDescribe** dataset consisting of long expert-labelled *golden* low-level text descriptions on 499 images, and a GPT-involved comparison pipeline between outputs of MLLMs and the *golden* descriptions. **_c)_** Besides these two tasks, we further measure their visual quality **_assessment_** ability to align with human opinion scores. Specifically, we design a softmax-based strategy that enables MLLMs to predict *quantifiable* quality scores, and evaluate them on various existing image quality assessment (IQA) datasets. Our evaluation across the three abilities confirms that MLLMs possess preliminary low-level visual skills. However, these skills are still unstable and relatively imprecise, indicating the need for specific enhancements on MLLMs towards these abilities. We hope that our benchmark can encourage the research community to delve deeper to discover and enhance these untapped potentials of MLLMs.
Jingyang Qiao, zhizhong zhang, Xin Tan, Chengwei Chen, Yanyun Qu, Yong Peng, Yuan Xie
tl;dr: Gradient projection against forgetting in prompt-tuning based continual learning method
Prompt-tuning has demonstrated impressive performance in continual learning by querying relevant prompts for each input instance, which can avoid the introduction of task identifier. Its forgetting is therefore reduced as this instance-wise query mechanism enables us to select and update only relevant prompts. In this paper, we further integrate prompt-tuning with gradient projection approach. Our observation is: prompt-tuning releases the necessity of task identifier for gradient projection method; and gradient projection provides theoretical guarantees against forgetting for prompt-tuning. This inspires a new prompt gradient projection approach (PGP) for continual learning. In PGP, we deduce that reaching the orthogonal condition for prompt gradient can effectively prevent forgetting via the self-attention mechanism in vision-transformer. The condition equations are then realized by conducting Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) on an element-wise sum space between input space and prompt space. We validate our method on diverse datasets and experiments demonstrate the efficiency of reducing forgetting both in class incremental, online class incremental, and task incremental settings. The code is available at https://github.com/JingyangQiao/prompt-gradient-projection.
Aoran Wang, Jun Pang
This paper introduces a novel approach to structural inference, combining a variational dynamics encoder with partial correlation coefficients. In contrast to prior methods, our approach leverages variational inference to encode node dynamics within latent variables, and structural reconstruction relies on the calculation of partial correlation coefficients derived from these latent variables. This unique design endows our method with scalability and extends its applicability to both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional feature spaces. Furthermore, by reorganizing latent variables according to temporal steps, our approach can effectively reconstruct directed graph structures. We validate our method through extensive experimentation on twenty datasets from a benchmark dataset and biological networks. Our results showcase the superior scalability, accuracy, and versatility of our proposed approach compared to existing methods. Moreover, experiments conducted on noisy data affirm the robustness of our method.
Junyi An, Chao Qu, Zhipeng Zhou, Fenglei Cao, Xu Yinghui, Yuan Qi, Furao Shen
Equivariant message passing neural networks have emerged as the prevailing approach for predicting chemical properties of molecules due to their ability to leverage translation and rotation symmetries, resulting in a strong inductive bias. However, the equivariant operations in each layer can impose excessive constraints on the function form and network flexibility. To address these challenges, we introduce a novel network called the Hybrid Directional Graph Neural Network (HDGNN), which effectively combines strictly equivariant operations with learnable modules. We evaluate the performance of HDGNN on the QM9 dataset and the IS2RE dataset of OC20, demonstrating its state-of-the-art performance on several tasks and competitive performance on others. Our code is anonymously released on https://github.com/AnonymousACode/HDGNN.
Soham Gadgil, Ian Connick Covert, Su-In Lee
tl;dr: We develop a method for dynamic feature selection by directly predicting the conditional mutual information with the response variable
Dynamic feature selection, where we sequentially query features to make accurate predictions with a minimal budget, is a promising paradigm to reduce feature acquisition costs and provide transparency into the prediction process. The problem is challenging, however, as it requires both making predictions with arbitrary feature sets and learning a policy to identify the most valuable selections. Here, we take an information-theoretic perspective and prioritize features based on their mutual information with the response variable. The main challenge is implementing this policy, and we design a new approach that estimates the mutual information in a discriminative rather than a generative fashion. Building on our learning approach, we introduce several further improvements: allowing variable feature budgets across samples, enabling non-uniform costs between features, incorporating prior information, and exploring modern architectures to handle partial input information. We find that our method provides consistent gains over recent state-of-the-art methods across a variety of datasets.
Meng Liu, Yue Liu, KE LIANG, Wenxuan Tu, Siwei Wang, sihang zhou, Xinwang Liu
tl;dr: We present the first general framework TGC for deep temporal graph clustering and discuss the differences between temporal graph clustering and existing graph clustering from multi-levels.
Deep graph clustering has recently received significant attention due to its ability to enhance the representation learning capabilities of models in unsupervised scenarios. Nevertheless, deep clustering for temporal graphs, which could capture crucial dynamic interaction information, has not been fully explored. It means that in many clustering-oriented real-world scenarios, temporal graphs can only be processed as static graphs. This not only causes the loss of dynamic information but also triggers huge computational consumption. To solve the problem, we propose a general framework for deep Temporal Graph Clustering called TGC, which introduces deep clustering techniques to suit the interaction sequence-based batch-processing pattern of temporal graphs. In addition, we discuss differences between temporal graph clustering and static graph clustering from several levels. To verify the superiority of the proposed framework TGC, we conduct extensive experiments. The experimental results show that temporal graph clustering enables more flexibility in finding a balance between time and space requirements, and our framework can effectively improve the performance of existing temporal graph learning methods. The code is released: https://github.com/MGitHubL/Deep-Temporal-Graph-Clustering.
Amin Rakhsha, Mete Kemertas, Mohammad Ghavamzadeh, Amir-massoud Farahmand
tl;dr: Planning algorithm that corrects the model
We propose and theoretically analyze an approach for planning with an approximate model in reinforcement learning that can reduce the adverse impact of model error. If the model is accurate enough, it accelerates the convergence to the true value function too. One of its key components is the MaxEnt Model Correction (MoCo) procedure that corrects the model’s next-state distributions based on a Maximum Entropy density estimation formulation. Based on MoCo, we introduce the Model Correcting Value Iteration (MoCoVI) algorithm, and its sampled-based variant MoCoDyna. We show that MoCoVI and MoCoDyna’s convergence can be much faster than the conventional model-free algorithms. Unlike traditional model-based algorithms, MoCoVI and MoCoDyna effectively utilize an approximate model and still converge to the correct value function.
Yinya Huang, Xiaohan Lin, Zhengying Liu, Qingxing Cao, Huajian Xin, Haiming Wang, Zhenguo Li, Linqi Song, Xiaodan Liang
Recent large language models (LLMs) have witnessed significant advancement in various tasks, including mathematical reasoning and theorem proving. As these two tasks require strict and formal multi-step inference, they are appealing domains for exploring the reasoning ability of LLMs but still face important challenges. Previous studies such as Chain-of-Thought (CoT) have revealed the effectiveness of intermediate steps guidance. However, such step-wise annotation requires heavy labor, leading to insufficient training steps for current benchmarks. To fill this gap, this work introduces MUSTARD, a data generation framework that masters uniform synthesis of theorem and proof data of high quality and diversity. MUSTARD synthesizes data in three stages: (1) It samples a few mathematical concept seeds as the problem category. (2) Then, it prompts a generative language model with the sampled concepts to obtain both the problems and their step-wise formal solutions. (3) Lastly, the framework utilizes a proof assistant (e.g., Lean Prover) to filter the valid proofs. With the proposed MUSTARD, we present a theorem-and-proof benchmark MUSTARDSAUCE with 5,866 valid data points. Each data point contains an informal statement, an informal proof, and a translated formal proof that passes the prover validation. We perform extensive analysis and demonstrate that MUSTARD generates validated high-quality step-by-step data. We further apply the MUSTARDSAUCE for fine-tuning smaller language models. The fine-tuned Llama 2-7B achieves a 15.41% average relative performance gain in automated theorem proving, and 8.18% in math word problems. Codes and data are available at https://github.com/Eleanor-H/MUSTARD.
Thaddäus Wiedemer, Jack Brady, Alexander Panfilov, Attila Juhos, Matthias Bethge, Wieland Brendel
tl;dr: We show theoretical conditions under which compositional generalization is guaranteed for object-centric representation learning.
Learning representations that generalize to novel compositions of known concepts is crucial for bridging the gap between human and machine perception. One prominent effort is learning object-centric representations, which are widely conjectured to enable compositional generalization. Yet, it remains unclear when this conjecture will be true, as a principled theoretical or empirical understanding of compositional generalization is lacking. In this work, we investigate when compositional generalization is guaranteed for object-centric representations through the lens of identifiability theory. We show that autoencoders that satisfy structural assumptions on the decoder and enforce encoder-decoder consistency will learn object-centric representations that provably generalize compositionally. We validate our theoretical result and highlight the practical relevance of our assumptions through experiments on synthetic image data.
Wenyu Jiang, Hao Cheng, MingCai Chen, Chongjun Wang, Hongxin Wei
tl;dr: We empirically show that diversity is critical in sampling, and thereby propose a clustering-based sampling strategy.
Modern neural networks are known to give overconfident predictions for out-of-distribution inputs when deployed in the open world. It is common practice to leverage a surrogate outlier dataset to regularize the model during training, and recent studies emphasize the role of uncertainty in designing the sampling strategy for outlier datasets. However, the OOD samples selected solely based on predictive uncertainty can be biased towards certain types, which may fail to capture the full outlier distribution. In this work, we empirically show that diversity is critical in sampling outliers for OOD detection performance. Motivated by the observation, we propose a straightforward and novel sampling strategy named DOS (Diverse Outlier Sampling) to select diverse and informative outliers. Specifically, we cluster the normalized features at each iteration, and the most informative outlier from each cluster is selected for model training with absent category loss. With DOS, the sampled outliers efficiently shape a globally compact decision boundary between ID and OOD data. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of DOS, reducing the average FPR95 by up to 25.79% on CIFAR-100 with TI-300K.
Jiahao Li, Hao Tan, Kai Zhang, Zexiang Xu, Fujun Luan, Yinghao Xu, Yicong Hong, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Greg Shakhnarovich, Sai Bi
tl;dr: Generate 3D shapes from text within 20 seconds, using sparse-view generation and reconstructions.
Text-to-3D with diffusion models have achieved remarkable progress in recent years. However, existing methods either rely on score distillation-based optimization which suffer from slow inference, low diversity and Janus problems, or are feed-forward methods that generate low quality results due to the scarcity of 3D training data. In this paper, we propose Instant3D, a novel method that generates high-quality and diverse 3D assets from text prompts in a feed-forward manner. We adopt a two-stage paradigm, which first generates a sparse set of four structured and consistent views from text in one shot with a fine-tuned 2D text-to-image diffusion model, and then directly regresses the NeRF from the generated images with a novel transformer-based sparse-view reconstructor. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our method can generate high-quality, diverse and Janus-free 3D assets within 20 seconds, which is two order of magnitude faster than previous optimization-based methods that can take 1 to 10 hours. Our project webpage: https://instant-3d.github.io/.
Satoki Ishikawa, Ryo Karakida
tl;dr: We uncover the parameterization of second-order optimization methods that enable feature learning in infinite-width neural networks and demonstrate its benefits.
Second-order optimization has been developed to accelerate the training of deep neural networks and it is being applied to increasingly larger-scale models. In this study, towards training on further larger scales, we identify a specific parameterization for second-order optimization that promotes feature learning in a stable manner even if the network width increases significantly. Inspired by a maximal update parametrization, we consider a one-step update of the gradient and reveal the appropriate scales of hyperparameters including random initialization, learning rates, and damping terms. Our approach covers two major second-order optimization algorithms, K-FAC and Shampoo, and we demonstrate that our parametrization achieves higher generalization performance in feature learning. In particular, it enables us to transfer the hyperparameters across models with different widths.
Suhwan Choi, Myeongho Jeon, Yeonjung Hwang, Jeonglyul Oh, Sungjun Lim, Joonseok Lee, Myungjoo Kang
tl;dr: We propose a straightforward and powerful contrastive objective that directly compares local features with label embeddings for forward learning.
While backpropagation (BP) has achieved widespread success in deep learning, it faces two prominent challenges; that is, computational inefficiency and biological implausibility. These issues arise from the requirements of feedback weight symmetry and the forward/backward pass locking. "Forward learning" (FL), an emerging alternative, updates each layer's weights during the forward pass, eliminating the need for backward error signal propagation to address these concerns. Recent approaches have leveraged contrastive learning as a specialized tool for this scenario. However, it still exhibits suboptimal performance in comparison to BP. Our investigation suggests that existing contrastive FL methods, which assess similarities among local features, are susceptible to the inclusion of task-irrelevant information. In response to this, we propose a straightforward FL objective within a contrastive learning framework, with the goal of enhancing the similarity between local features and label embeddings, i.e., Dictionary Contrastive Forward Learning (DC-FL). Consequently, our objective yields substantial performance improvements, outperforming other state-of-the-art forward learning techniques. Notably, our method closely approaches the performance achieved by BP while concurrently preserving superior memory efficiency.
Alon Ziv, Itai Gat, Gael Le Lan, Tal Remez, Felix Kreuk, Jade Copet, Alexandre Défossez, Gabriel Synnaeve, Yossi Adi
tl;dr: We present MAGNeT, a fully non-autoregressive model for music and audio generation. MAGNeT reaches comparable performance to autoregressive models (e.g., MusicGen) but x7 faster during inference time.
We introduce MAGNeT, a masked generative sequence modeling method that operates directly over several streams of audio tokens. Unlike prior work, MAGNeT is comprised of a single-stage, non-autoregressive transformer. During training, we predict spans of masked tokens obtained from a masking scheduler, while during inference we gradually construct the output sequence using several decoding steps. To further enhance the quality of the generated audio, we introduce a novel rescoring method in which, we leverage an external pre-trained model to rescore and rank predictions from MAGNeT, which will be then used for later decoding steps. Lastly, we explore a hybrid version of MAGNeT, in which we fuse between autoregressive and non-autoregressive models to generate the first few seconds in an autoregressive manner while the rest of the sequence is being decoded in parallel. We demonstrate the efficiency of MAGNeT for the task of text-to-music and text-to-audio generation and conduct an extensive empirical evaluation, considering both objective metrics and human studies. The proposed approach is comparable to the evaluated baselines, while being significantly faster (x$7$ faster than the autoregressive baseline). Through ablation studies and analysis, we shed light on the importance of each of the components comprising MAGNeT, together with pointing to the trade-offs between autoregressive and non-autoregressive modeling, considering latency, throughput, and generation quality. Samples are available on our demo page https://pages.cs.huji.ac.il/adiyoss-lab/MAGNeT.
Daniel Y Fu, Hermann Kumbong, Eric Nguyen, Christopher Re
tl;dr: We propose FlashFFTConv, a new system that optimizes the FFT convolution algorithm to speed up long convolutions and enable long-sequence applications.
Convolution models with long filters have demonstrated state-of-the-art reasoning abilities in many long-sequence tasks but lag behind the most optimized Transformers in wall-clock time. A major bottleneck is the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)---which allows long convolutions to run in $O(N\log N)$ time in sequence length $N$ but has poor hardware utilization. In this paper, we study how to optimize the FFT convolution. We find two key bottlenecks: the FFT does not effectively use specialized matrix multiply units, and it incurs expensive I/O between layers of the memory hierarchy. In response, we propose FlashFFTConv. FlashFFTConv uses a matrix decomposition that computes the FFT using matrix multiply units and enables kernel fusion for long sequences, reducing I/O. We also present two sparse convolution algorithms---1) partial convolutions and 2) frequency-sparse convolutions---which can be implemented simply by skipping blocks in the matrix decomposition, enabling further opportunities for memory and compute savings. FlashFFTConv speeds up exact FFT convolutions by up to 8.7$\times$ over PyTorch and achieves up to 4.4$\times$ speedup end-to-end. Given the same compute budget, FlashFFTConv allows Hyena-GPT-s to achieve 2.3 points better perplexity and M2-BERT-base to achieve 3.3 points higher GLUE score---matching models with twice the parameter count. FlashFFTConv also achieves 96.1% accuracy on Path-512, a high-resolution vision task where no model had previously achieved better than 50%. Furthermore, partial convolutions enable longer-sequence models---yielding the first DNA model that can process the longest human genes (2.3M base pairs)---and frequency-sparse convolutions speed up pretrained models while maintaining or improving model quality.
Fabricio Arend Torres, Marcello Massimo Negri, Marco Inversi, Jonathan Aellen, Volker Roth
tl;dr: An approach for modeling fluid densities and velocities continuously in space and time while satisfying the continuity equation by construction.
We introduce Lagrangian Flow Networks (LFlows) for modeling fluid densities and velocities continuously in space and time. By construction, the proposed LFlows satisfy the continuity equation, a PDE describing mass conservation in its differential form. Our model is based on the insight that solutions to the continuity equation can be expressed as time-dependent density transformations via differentiable and invertible maps. This follows from classical theory of the existence and uniqueness of Lagrangian flows for smooth vector fields. Hence, we model fluid densities by transforming a base density with parameterized diffeomorphisms conditioned on time. The key benefit compared to methods relying on numerical ODE solvers or PINNs is that the analytic expression of the velocity is always consistent with changes in density. Furthermore, we require neither expensive numerical solvers, nor additional penalties to enforce the PDE. LFlows show higher predictive accuracy in density modeling tasks compared to competing models in 2D and 3D, while being computationally efficient. As a real-world application, we model bird migration based on sparse weather radar measurements.
Rui Jiao, Wenbing Huang, Yu Liu, Deli Zhao, Yang Liu
Crystals are the foundation of numerous scientific and industrial applications. While various learning-based approaches have been proposed for crystal generation, existing methods neglect the spacegroup constraint which is crucial in describing the geometry of crystals and closely relevant to many desirable properties. However, considering spacegroup constraint is challenging owing to its diverse and nontrivial forms. In this paper, we reduce the spacegroup constraint into an equivalent formulation that is more tractable to be handcrafted into the generation process. In particular, we translate the spacegroup constraint into two cases: the basis constraint of the invariant exponential space of the lattice matrix and the Wyckoff position constraint of the fractional coordinates. Upon the derived constraints, we then propose DiffCSP++, a novel diffusion model that has enhanced a previous work DiffCSP by further taking spacegroup constraint into account. Experiments on several popular datasets verify the benefit of the involvement of the spacegroup constraint, and show that our DiffCSP++ achieves the best or comparable performance on crystal structure prediction and ab initio crystal generation.
Lei Li, Yekun Chai, Shuohuan Wang, Yu Sun, Hao Tian, Ningyu Zhang, Hua Wu
tl;dr: This paper introduces tool-augmented reward models for reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF), improving precision and interpretability and contributing a comprehensive dataset from seven diverse tool APIs to advance the field.
Reward modeling (*a.k.a.*, preference modeling) is instrumental for aligning large language models with human preferences, particularly within the context of reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF). While conventional reward models (RMs) have exhibited remarkable scalability, they oft struggle with fundamental functionality such as arithmetic computation, code execution, and factual lookup. In this paper, we propose a tool-augmented preference modeling approach, named Themis, to address these limitations by empowering RMs with access to external environments, including calculators and search engines. This approach not only fosters synergy between tool utilization and reward grading but also enhances interpretive capacity and scoring reliability. Our study delves into the integration of external tools into RMs, enabling them to interact with diverse external sources and construct task-specific tool engagement and reasoning traces in an autoregressive manner. We validate our approach across a wide range of domains, incorporating seven distinct external tools. Our experimental results demonstrate a noteworthy overall improvement of 17.7% across eight tasks in preference ranking. Furthermore, our approach outperforms Gopher 280B by 7.3% on TruthfulQA task in zero-shot evaluation. In human evaluations, RLHF trained with Themis attains an average win rate of 32% when compared to baselines across four distinct tasks. Additionally, we provide a comprehensive collection of tool-related RM datasets, incorporating data from seven distinct tool APIs, totaling 15,000 instances. We have made the code, data, and model checkpoints publicly available to facilitate and inspire further research advancements (https://github.com/ernie-research/Tool-Augmented-Reward-Model).
Sara Klein, Simon Weissmann, Leif Döring
Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are a formal framework for modeling and solving sequential decision-making problems. In finite time horizons such problems are relevant for instance for optimal stopping or specific supply chain problems, but also in the training of large language models. In contrast to infinite horizon MDPs optimal policies are not stationary, policies must be learned for every single epoch. In practice all parameters are often trained simultaneously, ignoring the inherent structure suggested by dynamic programming. This paper introduces a combination of dynamic programming and policy gradient called dynamical policy gradient, where the parameters are trained backwards in time. For the tabular softmax parametrisation we carry out the convergence analysis for simultaneous and dynamic policy gradient towards global optima, both in the exact and sampled gradient settings without regularisation. It turns out that the use of dynamic policy gradient training much better exploits the structure of finite-time problems which is reflected in improved convergence bounds.
Jiawei Liang, Siyuan Liang, Aishan Liu, Xiaojun Jia, Junhao Kuang, Xiaochun Cao
The proliferation of face forgery techniques has raised significant concerns within society, thereby motivating the development of face forgery detection methods. These methods aim to distinguish forged faces from genuine ones and have proven effective in practical applications. However, this paper introduces a novel and previously unrecognized threat in face forgery detection scenarios caused by backdoor attack. By embedding backdoors into models and incorporating specific trigger patterns into the input, attackers can deceive detectors into producing erroneous predictions for forged faces. To achieve this goal, this paper proposes \emph{Poisoned Forgery Face} framework, which enables clean-label backdoor attacks on face forgery detectors. Our approach involves constructing a scalable trigger generator and utilizing a novel convolving process to generate translation-sensitive trigger patterns. Moreover, we employ a relative embedding method based on landmark-based regions to enhance the stealthiness of the poisoned samples. Consequently, detectors trained on our poisoned samples are embedded with backdoors. Notably, our approach surpasses SoTA backdoor baselines with a significant improvement in attack success rate (+16.39\% BD-AUC) and reduction in visibility (-12.65\% $L_\infty$). Furthermore, our attack exhibits promising performance against backdoor defenses. We anticipate that this paper will draw greater attention to the potential threats posed by backdoor attacks in face forgery detection scenarios. Our codes will be made available at \url{https://github.com/JWLiang007/PFF}.
Sai Surya Duvvuri, Fnu Devvrit, Rohan Anil, Cho-Jui Hsieh, Inderjit S Dhillon
Adaptive regularization based optimization methods such as full-matrix Adagrad which use gradient second-moment information hold significant potential for fast convergence in deep neural network (DNN) training, but are memory intensive and computationally demanding for large neural nets. We develop a technique called Combining AxeS PReconditioners (CASPR), which optimizes matrix-shaped DNN parameters by finding different preconditioners for each mode/axis of the parameter and combining them using a Kronecker-sum based approximation. We show tighter convergence guarantees in stochastic optimization compared to a Kronecker product based preconditioner, Shampoo, which arises as a special case of CASPR. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrates that CASPR approximates the gradient second-moment matrix in full-matrix Adagrad more accurately, and shows significant improvement in training and generalization performance compared to existing practical adaptive regularization based methods such as Shampoo and Adam in a variety of tasks including graph neural network on OGBG-molpcba, Transformer on a universal dependencies dataset and auto-regressive large language modeling on C4 dataset.
Robert Peach, Matteo Vinao-Carl, Nir Grossman, Michael David, Emma Mallas, David J. Sharp, Paresh A. Malhotra, Pierre Vandergheynst, Adam Gosztolai
Gaussian processes (GPs) are popular nonparametric statistical models for learning unknown functions and quantifying the spatiotemporal uncertainty in data. Recent works have extended GPs to model scalar and vector quantities distributed over non-Euclidean domains, including smooth manifolds, appearing in numerous fields such as computer vision, dynamical systems, and neuroscience. However, these approaches assume that the manifold underlying the data is known, limiting their practical utility. We introduce RVGP, a generalisation of GPs for learning vector signals over latent Riemannian manifolds. Our method uses positional encoding with eigenfunctions of the connection Laplacian, associated with the tangent bundle, readily derived from common graph-based approximation of data. We demonstrate that RVGP possesses global regularity over the manifold, which allows it to super-resolve and inpaint vector fields while preserving singularities. Furthermore, we use RVGP to reconstruct high-density neural dynamics derived from low-density EEG recordings in healthy individuals and Alzheimer's patients. We show that vector field singularities are important disease markers and that their reconstruction leads to a comparable classification accuracy of disease states to high-density recordings. Thus, our method overcomes a significant practical limitation in experimental and clinical applications.
Zhiyuan Zeng, Jiatong Yu, Tianyu Gao, Yu Meng, Tanya Goyal, Danqi Chen
tl;dr: We introduce a challenging meta-evaluation dataset, designed to test the ability of an LLM evaluator to discern instruction-following outputs.
As research in large language models (LLMs) continues to accelerate, LLM-based evaluation has emerged as a scalable and cost-effective alternative to human evaluations for comparing the ever-increasing list of models. This paper investigates the efficacy of these “LLM evaluators”, particularly in using them to assess instruction following, a metric that gauges how closely generated text adheres to the instructions. We introduce a challenging meta-evaluation benchmark, LLMBAR, designed to test the ability of an LLM evaluator to discern instruction-following outputs. The authors curated 419 pairs of outputs, one adhering to instructions while the other diverging, yet may possess deceptive qualities that could mislead an LLM evaluator. Contrary to existing meta-evaluation, we discover that different evaluators (i.e., combinations of LLMs and prompts) exhibit distinct performance on LLMBAR and even the highest-scoring LLM evaluators have substantial room for improvement. We also present a novel suite of prompting strategies that further close the gap between LLM and human evaluators. With LLMBAR, we hope to offer more insight into the behavior of LLM evaluators and foster research in developing better instruction-following models.
Haanvid Lee, Tri Wahyu Guntara, Jongmin Lee, Yung-Kyun Noh, Kee-Eung Kim
tl;dr: Off-policy policy evaluation method using in-sample learning with importance resampling for the evaluation of deterministic policies with continuous actions
We consider off-policy evaluation (OPE) of deterministic target policies for reinforcement learning (RL) in environments with continuous action spaces. While it is common to use importance sampling for OPE, it suffers from high variance when the behavior policy deviates significantly from the target policy. In order to address this issue, some recent works on OPE proposed in-sample learning with importance resampling. Yet, these approaches are not applicable to deterministic target policies for continuous action spaces. To address this limitation, we propose to relax the deterministic target policy using a kernel and learn the kernel metrics that minimize the overall mean squared error of the estimated temporal difference update vector of an action value function, where the action value function is used for policy evaluation. We derive the bias and variance of the estimation error due to this relaxation and provide analytic solutions for the optimal kernel metric. In empirical studies using various test domains, we show that the OPE with in-sample learning using the kernel with optimized metric achieves significantly improved accuracy than other baselines.
Yuto Nishimura, Taiji Suzuki
Recent deep learning applications, exemplified by text-to-image tasks, often involve high-dimensional inputs and outputs. While several studies have investigated the function estimation capabilities of deep learning, research on dilated convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has mainly focused on cases where input dimensions are infinite but output dimensions are one-dimensional, similar to many other studies. However, many practical deep learning tasks involve high-dimensional (or even infinite dimensional) inputs and outputs. In this paper, we investigate the optimality of dilated CNNs for estimating a map between infinite-dimensional input and output spaces by analyzing their approximation and estimation abilities. For that purpose, we first show that approximation and estimation errors depend only on the smoothness and decay rate with respect to the infinity norm of the output, and their estimation accuracy actually achieve the {\it minimax optimal} rate of convergence. Second, we demonstrate that the dilated CNNs outperform {\it any} linear estimators including kernel ridge regression and $k$-NN estimators in a minimax error sense, highlighting the usefulness of feature learning realized by deep neural networks. Our theoretical analysis particularly explains the success of deep learning in recent high-dimensional input-output tasks.
Harikrishna Narasimhan, Aditya Krishna Menon, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Sanjiv Kumar
tl;dr: Plugin estimators that are theoretically grounded, effective, and generalise approaches for selective classification and OOD detection
Real-world classifiers can benefit from the option of abstaining from predicting on samples where they have low confidence. Such abstention is particularly useful on samples which are close to the learned decision boundary, or which are outliers with respect to the training sample. These settings have been the subject of extensive but disjoint study in the selective classification (SC) and out-of-distribution (OOD) detection literature. Recent work on selective classification with OOD detection (SCOD) has argued for the unified study of these problems; however, the formal underpinnings of this problem are still nascent, and existing techniques are heuristic in nature. In this paper, we propose new plugin estimators for SCOD that are theoretically grounded, effective, and generalise existing approaches from the SC and OOD detection literature. In the course of our analysis, we formally explicate how naïve use of existing SC and OOD detection baselines may be inadequate for SCOD. We empirically demonstrate that our approaches yields competitive SC and OOD detection trade-offs compared to common baselines.
Meng-Chieh Lee, Haiyang Yu, Jian Zhang, Vassilis N. Ioannidis, Xiang song, Soji Adeshina, Da Zheng, Christos Faloutsos
tl;dr: We propose a framework that measures the usable information of graphs and exploits it to solve the graph tasks, namely link prediction and node classification.
Given a node-attributed graph, and a graph task (link prediction or node classification), can we tell if a graph neural network (GNN) will perform well? More specifically, do the graph structure and the node features carry enough usable information for the task? Our goals are (1) to develop a fast tool to measure how much information is in the graph structure and in the node features, and (2) to exploit the information to solve the task, if there is enough. We propose NetInfoF, a framework including NetInfoF_Probe and NetInfoF_Act, for the measurement and the exploitation of network usable information (NUI), respectively. Given a graph data, NetInfoF_Probe measures NUI without any model training, and NetInfoF_Act solves link prediction and node classification, while two modules share the same backbone. In summary, NetInfoF has following notable advantages: (a) General, handling both link prediction and node classification; (b) Principled, with theoretical guarantee and closed-form solution; (c) Effective, thanks to the proposed adjustment to node similarity; (d) Scalable, scaling linearly with the input size. In our carefully designed synthetic datasets, NetInfoF correctly identifies the ground truth of NUI and is the only method being robust to all graph scenarios. Applied on real-world datasets, NetInfoF wins in 11 out of 12 times on link prediction compared to general GNN baselines.
Ce Ju, Reinmar J Kobler, Liyao Tang, Cuntai Guan, Motoaki Kawanabe
tl;dr: We propose a deep geometric learning approach from the perspective of Riemannian geometry for the fusion of covariance-based neuroimaging data.
In human neuroimaging, multi-modal imaging techniques are frequently combined to enhance our comprehension of whole-brain dynamics and improve diagnosis in clinical practice. Modalities like electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging provide distinct views of brain dynamics due to diametral spatiotemporal sensitivities and underlying neurophysiological coupling mechanisms. These distinct views pose a considerable challenge to learning a shared representation space, especially when dealing with covariance-based data characterized by their geometric structure. To capitalize on the geometric structure, we introduce a measure called geodesic correlation, which expands traditional correlation consistency to covariance-based data on the symmetric positive definite (SPD) manifold. This measure is derived from classical canonical correlation analysis and serves to evaluate the consistency of latent representations obtained from paired views. For multi-view/-modal, self-supervised learning where one or both latent views are SPD, we propose an innovative geometric deep learning framework termed DeepGeoCCA. Its primary objective is to enhance the geodesic correlation of unlabeled, paired data, thereby generating novel representations while retaining the geometric structures. In simulations and experiments with multi-view and multi-modal human neuroimaging data, we find that DeepGeoCCA learns latent representations with high geodesic consistency for unseen data while retaining relevant information for downstream tasks.
Diyang Li, Charles Ling, zhiqiang xu, Huan Xiong, Bin Gu
Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) encompass a wide array of regression and classification models, where prediction is a function of a linear combination of the input variables. Often in real-world scenarios, a number of observations would be added into or removed from the existing training dataset, necessitating the development of learning systems that can efficiently train optimal models with varying observations in an online (sequential) manner instead of retraining from scratch. Despite the significance of data-varying scenarios, most existing approaches to sparse GLMs concentrate on offline batch updates, leaving online solutions largely underexplored. In this work, we present the first algorithm without compromising accuracy for GLMs regularized by sparsity-enforcing penalties trained on varying observations. Our methodology is capable of handling the addition and deletion of observations simultaneously, while adaptively updating data-dependent regularization parameters to ensure the best statistical performance. Specifically, we recast sparse GLMs as a bilevel optimization objective upon varying observations and characterize it as an explicit gradient flow in the underlying space for the inner and outer subproblems we are optimizing over, respectively. We further derive a set of rules to ensure a proper transition at regions of non-smoothness, and establish the guarantees of theoretical consistency and finite convergence. Encouraging results are exhibited on real-world benchmarks.
Riku Togashi, Tatsushi Oka, Naoto Ohsaka, Tetsuro Morimura
Excellent tail performance is crucial for modern machine learning tasks, such as algorithmic fairness, class imbalance, and risk-sensitive decision making, as it ensures the effective handling of challenging samples within a dataset. Tail performance is also a vital determinant of success for personalized recommender systems to reduce the risk of losing users with low satisfaction. This study introduces a "safe" collaborative filtering method that prioritizes recommendation quality for less-satisfied users rather than focusing on the average performance. Our approach minimizes the conditional value at risk (CVaR), which represents the average risk over the tails of users' loss. To overcome computational challenges for web-scale recommender systems, we develop a robust yet practical algorithm that extends the most scalable method, implicit alternating least squares (iALS). Empirical evaluation on real-world datasets demonstrates the excellent tail performance of our approach while maintaining competitive computational efficiency.
Longtao Zheng, Rundong Wang, Xinrun Wang, Bo An
tl;dr: We introduce Synapse, a computer agent featuring state abstraction, trajectory-as-exemplar prompting, and exemplar memory.
Building agents with large language models (LLMs) for computer control is a burgeoning research area, where the agent receives computer states and performs actions to complete complex tasks. Previous computer agents have demonstrated the benefits of in-context learning (ICL); however, their performance is hindered by several issues. First, the limited context length of LLMs and complex computer states restrict the number of exemplars, as a single webpage can consume the entire context. Second, the exemplars in current methods, such as high-level plans and multi-choice questions, cannot represent complete trajectories, leading to suboptimal performance in long-horizon tasks. Third, existing computer agents rely on task-specific exemplars and overlook the similarity among tasks, resulting in poor generalization to novel tasks. To address these challenges, we introduce Synapse, a computer agent featuring three key components: i) state abstraction, which filters out task-irrelevant information from raw states, allowing more exemplars within the limited context, ii) trajectory-as-exemplar prompting, which prompts the LLM with complete trajectories of the abstracted states and actions to improve multi-step decision-making, and iii) exemplar memory, which stores the embeddings of exemplars and retrieves them via similarity search for generalization to novel tasks. We evaluate Synapse on MiniWoB++, a standard task suite, and Mind2Web, a real-world website benchmark. In MiniWoB++, Synapse achieves a 99.2% average success rate (a 10% relative improvement) across 64 tasks using demonstrations from only 48 tasks. Notably, Synapse is the first ICL method to solve the book-flight task in MiniWoB++. Synapse also exhibits a 56% relative improvement in average step success rate over the previous state-of-the-art prompting scheme in Mind2Web.
Danny Halawi, Jean-Stanislas Denain, Jacob Steinhardt
Modern language models can imitate complex patterns through few-shot learning, enabling them to complete challenging tasks without fine-tuning. However, imitation can also lead models to reproduce inaccuracies or harmful content if present in the context. We study harmful imitation through the lens of a model’s internal representations, and identify two related phenomena: overthinking and false induction heads. The first phenomenon, overthinking, appears when we decode predictions from intermediate layers, given correct vs. incorrect few-shot demonstrations. At early layers, both demonstrations induce similar model behavior, but the behavior diverges sharply at some “critical layer”, after which the accuracy given incorrect demonstrations progressively decreases. The second phenomenon, false induction heads, are a possible mechanistic cause of overthinking: these are heads in late layers that attend to and copy false information from previous demonstrations, and whose ablation reduces overthinking. Beyond scientific understanding, our results suggest that studying intermediate model computations could be a promising avenue for understanding and guarding against harmful model behaviors.
Yanwei Wang, Tsun-Hsuan Wang, Jiayuan Mao, Michael Hagenow, Julie Shah
Grounding the abstract knowledge captured by Large Language Models (LLMs) in physical domains remains a pivotal yet unsolved problem. Whereas prior works have largely focused on leveraging LLMs for generating abstract plans in symbolic spaces, this work uses LLMs to guide the learning for structures and constraints in robot manipulation tasks. Specifically, we borrow from manipulation plan- ning literature the concept of mode families, defining specific types of motion constraints among sets of objects, to serve as an intermediate layer that connects high-level language representations with low-level physical trajectories. By lo- cally perturbing a small set of successful human demonstrations, we augment the dataset with additional successful executions as well as counterfactuals that fail the task. Our explanation-based learning framework trains neural network-based classifiers to differentiate success task executions from failures and as a by-product learns classifiers that ground low-level states into mode families without dense labeling. This further enables us to learn structured policies for the target task. Experimental validation in both 2D continuous-space and robotic manipulation environments demonstrates the robustness of our mode-based imitation methods under external perturbations.
Bobak Kiani, Thien Le, Hannah Lawrence, Stefanie Jegelka, Melanie Weber
tl;dr: We give statistical query lower bounds for learning symmetry-preserving neural networks and other invariant functions.
We study the problem of learning equivariant neural networks via gradient descent. The incorporation of known symmetries ("equivariance") into neural nets has empirically improved the performance of learning pipelines, in domains ranging from biology to computer vision. However, a rich yet separate line of learning theoretic research has demonstrated that actually learning shallow, fully-connected (i.e. non-symmetric) networks has exponential complexity in the correlational statistical query (CSQ) model, a framework encompassing gradient descent. In this work, we ask: are known problem symmetries sufficient to alleviate the fundamental hardness of learning neural nets with gradient descent? We answer this question in the negative. In particular, we give lower bounds for shallow graph neural networks, convolutional networks, invariant polynomials, and frame-averaged networks for permutation subgroups, which all scale either superpolynomially or exponentially in the relevant input dimension. Therefore, in spite of the significant inductive bias imparted via symmetry, actually learning the complete classes of functions represented by equivariant neural networks via gradient descent remains hard.
Junsheng Zhou, Jinsheng Wang, Baorui Ma, Yu-Shen Liu, Tiejun Huang, Xinlong Wang
Scaling up representations for images or text has been extensively investigated in the past few years and has led to revolutions in learning vision and language. However, scalable representation for 3D objects and scenes is relatively unexplored. In this work, we present Uni3D, a 3D foundation model to explore the unified 3D representation at scale. Uni3D uses a 2D initialized ViT end-to-end pretrained to align the 3D point cloud features with the image-text aligned features. Via the simple architecture and pretext task, Uni3D can leverage abundant 2D pretrained models as initialization and image-text aligned models as the target, unlocking the great potential of 2D model zoos and scaling-up strategies to the 3D world. We efficiently scale up Uni3D to one billion parameters, and set new records on a broad range of 3D tasks, such as zero-shot classification, few-shot classification, open-world understanding and zero-shot part segmentation. We show that the strong Uni3D representation also enables applications such as 3D painting and retrieval in the wild. We believe that Uni3D provides a new direction for exploring both scaling up and efficiency of the representation in 3D domain.
Yingtao Zhang, Jialin Zhao, Wenjing Wu, Alessandro Muscoloni, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci
tl;dr: The study presents ESML and CHT, methods that combine dynamic sparse training and epitopological learning to efficiently structure artificial neural networks, resulting in a significant reduction in node size while maintaining performance
Sparse training (ST) aims to ameliorate deep learning by replacing fully connected artificial neural networks (ANNs) with sparse or ultra-sparse ones, such as brain networks are, therefore it might benefit to borrow brain-inspired learning paradigms from complex network intelligence theory. Here, we launch the ultra-sparse advantage challenge, whose goal is to offer evidence on the extent to which ultra-sparse (around 1% connection retained) topologies can achieve any leaning advantage on fully connected. Epitopological learning is a field of network science and complex network intelligence that studies how to implement learning on complex networks by changing the shape of their connectivity structure (epitopological plasticity). One way to implement Epitopological (epi- means new) Learning is via link prediction: predicting the likelihood of nonobserved links to appear in the network. Cannistraci-Hebb learning theory inspired the CH3-L3 network automata rule for link prediction which is effective for general-purpose link prediction. Here, starting from CH3-L3 we propose Epitopological Sparse Meta-deep Learning (ESML) to apply Epitopological Learning to sparse training. In empirical experiments, we find that ESML learns ANNs with ultra-sparse hyperbolic (epi-)topology in which emerges a community layer organization that is meta-deep (meaning that each layer also has an internal depth due to power-law node hierarchy). Furthermore, we discover that ESML can in many cases automatically sparse the neurons during training (arriving even to 30% neurons left in hidden layers), this process of node dynamic removal is called percolation. Starting from this network science evidence, we design Cannistraci-Hebb training (CHT), a 4-step training methodology that put ESML at its heart. We conduct experiments on 6 datasets and 3 network structures (MLPs, VGG16, ResNet50) comparing CHT to dynamic sparse training SOTA algorithms and fully connected network. The results indicate that, with a mere 1\% of links retained during training, CHT surpasses fully connected networks on VGG16 and ResNet50. This key finding is an evidence for ultra-sparse advantage and signs a milestone in deep learning. CHT acts akin to a gradient-free oracle which adopts CH3-L3 based epitopological learning to guide the placement of new links in the ultra-sparse network topology to facilitate sparse-weight gradient learning, and this in turn reduces the convergence time of ultra-sparse training. Finally, CHT offers first examples of parsimony dynamic sparse training because, in many datasets, it can retain network performance by percolating and significantly reducing the node network size.
Xiaoyi Liu, Duxin Chen, Wenjia Wei, Xia Zhu, Wenwu Yu
tl;dr: A sparse identification method without using neural network, achieving much higher accuracy with significantly lower computational cost in multi-variable long-term predictions compared with recent SOTA deep learning methods.
With the continuous advancement of neural network methodologies, time series prediction has attracted substantial interest over the past decades. Nonetheless, the interpretability of neural networks is insufficient and the utilization of deep learning techniques for prediction necessitates significant computational expenditures, rendering its application arduous in numerous scenarios. In order to tackle this challenge, an interpretable sparse system identification method which does not require a time-consuming training through back-propagation is proposed in this study. This method integrates advantages from both knowledge-based and data-driven approaches, and constructs dictionary functions by leveraging Fourier basis and taking into account both the long-term trends and the short-term fluctuations behind data. By using the $l_1$ norm for sparse optimization, prediction results can be gained with an explicit sparse expression function and an extremely high accuracy. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is conducted on comprehensive benchmark datasets, including ETT, Exchange, and ILI. Results reveal that our proposed method attains a significant overall improvement of more than 20\% in accordance with the most recent state-of-the-art deep learning methodologies. Additionally, our method demonstrates the efficient training capability on only CPUs. Therefore, this study may shed some light onto the realm of time series reconstruction and prediction.
Siyuan Qi, Shuo Chen, Yexin Li, Xiangyu Kong, Junqi Wang, Bangcheng Yang, Pring Wong, Yifan Zhong, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Zhaowei Zhang, Nian Liu, Yaodong Yang, Song-Chun Zhu
tl;dr: We introduce an interactive environment benchmark grounded in the Civilization game for reinforcement learning (RL) and language agents.
The generalization of decision-making agents encompasses two fundamental elements: learning from past experiences and reasoning in novel contexts. However, the predominant emphasis in most interactive environments is on learning, often at the expense of complexity in reasoning. In this paper, we introduce CivRealm, an environment inspired by the Civilization game. Civilization's profound alignment with human history and society necessitates sophisticated learning, while its ever-changing situations demand strong reasoning to generalize. Particularly, CivRealm sets up an imperfect-information general-sum game with a changing number of players; it presents a plethora of complex features, challenging the agent to deal with open-ended stochastic environments that require diplomacy and negotiation skills. Within CivRealm, we provide interfaces for two typical agent types: tensor-based agents that focus on learning, and language-based agents that emphasize reasoning. To catalyze further research, we present initial results for both paradigms. The canonical RL-based agents exhibit reasonable performance in mini-games, whereas both RL- and LLM-based agents struggle to make substantial progress in the full game. Overall, CivRealm stands as a unique learning and reasoning challenge for decision-making agents. The code is available at https://github.com/bigai-ai/civrealm.
Alaa Saade, Steven Kapturowski, Daniele Calandriello, Charles Blundell, Pablo Sprechmann, Leopoldo Sarra, Oliver Groth, Michal Valko, Bilal Piot
tl;dr: We introduce a new novelty estimator for exploration in deep RL which can preserve long-term memory and be used with any representation learning techniques
We introduce Robust Exploration via Clustering-based Online Density Estimation (RECODE), a non-parametric method for novelty-based exploration that estimates visitation counts for clusters of states based on their similarity in a chosen embedding space. By adapting classical clustering to the nonstationary setting of Deep RL, RECODE can efficiently track state visitation counts over thousands of episodes. We further propose a novel generalization of the inverse dynamics loss, which leverages masked transformer architectures for multi-step prediction; which in conjunction with \DETOCS achieves a new state-of-the-art in a suite of challenging 3D-exploration tasks in DM-Hard-8. RECODE also sets new state-of-the-art in hard exploration Atari games, and is the first agent to reach the end screen in "Pitfall!"
Yujia Wang, Yuanpu Cao, Jingcheng Wu, Ruoyu Chen, Jinghui Chen
Asynchronous federated learning, which enables local clients to send their model update asynchronously to the server without waiting for others, has recently emerged for its improved efficiency and scalability over traditional synchronized federated learning. In this paper, we study how the asynchronous delay affects the convergence of asynchronous federated learning under non-i.i.d. distributed data across clients. Through the theoretical convergence analysis of one representative asynchronous federated learning algorithm under standard nonconvex stochastic settings, we show that the asynchronous delay can largely slow down the convergence, especially with high data heterogeneity. To further improve the convergence of asynchronous federated learning under heterogeneous data distributions, we propose a novel asynchronous federated learning method with a cached update calibration. Specifically, we let the server cache the latest update for each client and reuse these variables for calibrating the global update at each round. We theoretically prove the convergence acceleration for our proposed method under nonconvex stochastic settings. Extensive experiments on several vision and language tasks demonstrate our superior performances compared to other asynchronous federated learning baselines.
Garrett Tanzer, Mirac Suzgun, Eline Visser, Dan Jurafsky, Luke Melas-Kyriazi
Large language models (LLMs) can perform impressive feats with in-context learning or lightweight finetuning. It is natural to wonder how well these models adapt to genuinely new tasks, but how does one find tasks that are unseen in internet-scale training sets? We turn to a field that is explicitly motivated and bottlenecked by a scarcity of web data: low-resource languages. In this paper, we introduce MTOB (Machine Translation from One Book), a benchmark for learning to translate between English and Kalamang—a language with less than 200 speakers and therefore virtually no presence on the web—using several hundred pages of field linguistics reference materials. This task framing is novel in that it asks a model to learn a language from a single human-readable book of grammar explanations, rather than a large mined corpus of in-domain data, more akin to L2 language learning than L1 language acquisition. We demonstrate that baselines using current LLMs are promising but fall short of human performance, achieving 44.7 chrF on Kalamang to English translation and 45.8 chrF on English to Kalamang translation, compared to 51.6 and 57.0 chrF by a human who learned Kalamang from the same reference materials. We hope that MTOB will help measure LLM capabilities along a new dimension, and that the methods developed to solve it could help expand access to language technology for underserved communities by leveraging qualitatively different kinds of data than traditional machine translation.
Yanqi Bao, Tianyu Ding, Jing Huo, Wenbin Li, Yuxin Li, Yang Gao
tl;dr: We present InsertNeRF, a novel paradigm that instills generalizability into NeRF and its derivative works.
Generalizing Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) to new scenes is a significant challenge that existing approaches struggle to address without extensive modifications to vanilla NeRF framework. We introduce **InsertNeRF**, a method for **INS**tilling g**E**ne**R**alizabili**T**y into **NeRF**. By utilizing multiple plug-and-play HyperNet modules, InsertNeRF dynamically tailors NeRF's weights to specific reference scenes, transforming multi-scale sampling-aware features into scene-specific representations. This novel design allows for more accurate and efficient representations of complex appearances and geometries. Experiments show that this method not only achieves superior generalization performance but also provides a flexible pathway for integration with other NeRF-like systems, even in sparse input settings. Code will be available at: https://github.com/bbbbby-99/InsertNeRF.
Xiaogang Jia, Denis Blessing, Xinkai Jiang, Moritz Reuss, Atalay Donat, Rudolf Lioutikov, Gerhard Neumann
tl;dr: A simulation benchmark with diverse human demonstrations, and tractable metrics to evaluate imitation learning's ability to capture multi-modal behavior.
Imitation learning with human data has demonstrated remarkable success in teaching robots in a wide range of skills. However, the inherent diversity in human behavior leads to the emergence of multi-modal data distributions, thereby presenting a formidable challenge for existing imitation learning algorithms. Quantifying a model's capacity to capture and replicate this diversity effectively is still an open problem. In this work, we introduce simulation benchmark environments and the corresponding *Datasets with Diverse human Demonstrations for Imitation Learning (D3IL)*, designed explicitly to evaluate a model's ability to learn multi-modal behavior. Our environments are designed to involve multiple sub-tasks that need to be solved, consider manipulation of multiple objects which increases the diversity of the behavior and can only be solved by policies that rely on closed loop sensory feedback. Other available datasets are missing at least one of these challenging properties. To address the challenge of diversity quantification, we introduce tractable metrics that provide valuable insights into a model's ability to acquire and reproduce diverse behaviors. These metrics offer a practical means to assess the robustness and versatility of imitation learning algorithms. Furthermore, we conduct a thorough evaluation of state-of-the-art methods on the proposed task suite. This evaluation serves as a benchmark for assessing their capability to learn diverse behaviors. Our findings shed light on the effectiveness of these methods in tackling the intricate problem of capturing and generalizing multi-modal human behaviors, offering a valuable reference for the design of future imitation learning algorithms.
Xiaohuan Pei, Yanxi Li, Minjing Dong, Chang Xu
With the increasing number of new neural architecture designs and substantial existing neural architectures, it becomes difficult for the researchers to situate their contributions compared with existing neural architectures or establish the connections between their designs and other relevant ones. To discover similar neural architectures in an efficient and automatic manner, we define a new problem Neural Architecture Retrieval which retrieves a set of existing neural architectures which have similar designs to the query neural architecture. Existing graph pre-training strategies cannot address the computational graph in neural architectures due to the graph size and motifs. To fulfill this potential, we propose to divide the graph into motifs which are used to rebuild the macro graph to tackle these issues, and introduce multi-level contrastive learning to achieve accurate graph representation learning. Extensive evaluations on both human-designed and synthesized neural architectures demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm. Such a dataset which contains 12k real-world network architectures, as well as their embedding, is built for neural architecture retrieval.
Yangjun Ruan, Honghua Dong, Andrew Wang, Silviu Pitis, Yongchao Zhou, Jimmy Ba, Yann Dubois, Chris J. Maddison, Tatsunori Hashimoto
tl;dr: An LM-based emulation framework for identifying the risks of LM agents at scale
Recent advances in Language Model (LM) agents and tool use, exemplified by applications like ChatGPT Plugins, enable a rich set of capabilities but also amplify potential risks—such as leaking private data or causing financial losses. Identifying these risks is labor-intensive, necessitating implementing the tools, setting up the environment for each test scenario manually, and finding risky cases. As tools and agents become more complex, the high cost of testing these agents will make it increasingly difficult to find high-stakes, long-tail risks. To address these challenges, we introduce ToolEmu: a framework that uses an LM to emulate tool execution and enables scalable testing of LM agents against a diverse range of tools and scenarios. Alongside the emulator, we develop an LM-based automatic safety evaluator that examines agent failures and quantifies associated risks. We test both the tool emulator and evaluator through human evaluation and find that 68.8% of failures identified with ToolEmu would be valid real-world agent failures. Using our curated initial benchmark consisting of 36 high-stakes toolkits and 144 test cases, we provide a quantitative risk analysis of current LM agents and identify numerous failures with potentially severe outcomes. Notably, even the safest LM agent exhibits such failures 23.9% of the time according to our evaluator, underscoring the need to develop safer LM agents for real-world deployment.
Kejun Tang, Jiayu Zhai, Xiaoliang Wan, Chao Yang
Solving partial differential equations (PDEs) is a central task in scientific computing. Recently, neural network approximation of PDEs has received increasing attention due to its flexible meshless discretization and its potential for high-dimensional problems. One fundamental numerical difficulty is that random samples in the training set introduce statistical errors into the discretization of the loss functional which may become the dominant error in the final approximation, and therefore overshadow the modeling capability of the neural network. In this work, we propose a new minmax formulation to optimize simultaneously the approximate solution, given by a neural network model, and the random samples in the training set, provided by a deep generative model. The key idea is to use a deep generative model to adjust the random samples in the training set such that the residual induced by the neural network model can maintain a smooth profile in the training process. Such an idea is achieved by implicitly embedding the Wasserstein distance between the residual-induced distribution and the uniform distribution into the loss, which is then minimized together with the residual. A nearly uniform residual profile means that its variance is small for any normalized weight function such that the Monte Carlo approximation error of the loss functional is reduced significantly for a certain sample size. The adversarial adaptive sampling (AAS) approach proposed in this work is the first attempt to formulate two essential components, minimizing the residual and seeking the optimal training set, into one minmax objective functional for the neural network approximation of PDEs.
Yilan Zhang, Yingxue Xu, Jianqi Chen, Fengying Xie, Hao Chen
Multimodal learning significantly benefits cancer survival prediction, especially the integration of pathological images and genomic data. Despite advantages of multimodal learning for cancer survival prediction, massive redundancy in multimodal data prevents it from extracting discriminative and compact information: (1) An extensive amount of intra-modal task-unrelated information blurs discriminability, especially for gigapixel whole slide images (WSIs) with many patches in pathology and thousands of pathways in genomic data, leading to an "intra-modal redundancy" issue. (2) Duplicated information among modalities dominates the representation of multimodal data, which makes modality-specific information prone to being ignored, resulting in an "inter-modal redundancy" issue. To address these, we propose a new framework, Prototypical Information Bottlenecking and Disentangling (PIBD), consisting of Prototypical Information Bottleneck (PIB) module for intra-modal redundancy and Prototypical Information Disentanglement (PID) module for inter-modal redundancy. Specifically, a variant of information bottleneck, PIB, is proposed to model prototypes approximating a bunch of instances for different risk levels, which can be used for selection of discriminative instances within modality. PID module decouples entangled multimodal data into compact distinct components: modality-common and modality-specific knowledge, under the guidance of the joint prototypical distribution. Extensive experiments on five cancer benchmark datasets demonstrated our superiority over other methods. The code is released.
Chaoqi Wang, Yibo Jiang, Chenghao Yang, Han Liu, Yuxin Chen
tl;dr: This paper extends the Direct Preference Optimization (DPO) framework to incorporate diverse divergence constraints, offering a more versatile approach to align AI with human values.
The increasing capabilities of large language models (LLMs) raise opportunities for artificial general intelligence but concurrently amplify safety concerns, such as potential misuse of AI systems, necessitating effective AI alignment. Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) has emerged as a promising pathway towards AI alignment but brings forth challenges due to its complexity and dependence on a separate reward model. Direct Preference Optimization (DPO) has been proposed as an alternative; and it remains equivalent to RLHF under the reverse KL regularization constraint. This paper presents $f$-DPO, a generalized approach to DPO by incorporating diverse divergence constraints. We show that under certain $f$-divergences, including Jensen-Shannon divergence, forward KL divergences and $\alpha$-divergences, the complex relationship between the reward and optimal policy can also be simplified by addressing the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. This eliminates the need for estimating the normalizing constant in the Bradley-Terry model and enables a tractable mapping between the reward function and the optimal policy. Our approach optimizes LLMs to align with human preferences in a more efficient and supervised manner under a broad set of divergence constraints. Empirically, adopting these divergences ensures a balance between alignment performance and generation diversity. Importantly, our $f$-DPO outperforms PPO-based methods in divergence efficiency, and divergence constraints directly influence expected calibration error (ECE).
Yun-Hin Chan, Rui Zhou, Running Zhao, Zhihan JIANG, Edith C. H. Ngai
tl;dr: This paper proposes cross-layer gradients to expand the capabilities of homogeneous methods to tackle system heterogeneity in FL.
Federated learning (FL) inevitably confronts the challenge of system heterogeneity in practical scenarios. To enhance the capabilities of most model-homogeneous FL methods in handling system heterogeneity, we propose a training scheme that can extend their capabilities to cope with this challenge. In this paper, we commence our study with a detailed exploration of homogeneous and heterogeneous FL settings and discover three key observations: (1) a positive correlation between client performance and layer similarities, (2) higher similarities in the shallow layers in contrast to the deep layers, and (3) the smoother gradients distributions indicate the higher layer similarities. Building upon these observations, we propose InCo Aggregation that leverages internal cross-layer gradients, a mixture of gradients from shallow and deep layers within a server model, to augment the similarity in the deep layers without requiring additional communication between clients. Furthermore, our methods can be tailored to accommodate model-homogeneous FL methods such as FedAvg, FedProx, FedNova, Scaffold, and MOON, to expand their capabilities to handle the system heterogeneity. Copious experimental results validate the effectiveness of InCo Aggregation, spotlighting internal cross-layer gradients as a promising avenue to enhance the performance in heterogeneous FL.
Yuexiao Ma, Huixia Li, Xiawu Zheng, Feng Ling, Xuefeng Xiao, Rui Wang, Shilei Wen, Fei Chao, Rongrong Ji
The significant resource requirements associated with Large-scale Language Models (LLMs) have generated considerable interest in the development of techniques aimed at compressing and accelerating neural networks. Among these techniques, Post-Training Quantization (PTQ) has emerged as a subject of considerable interest due to its noteworthy compression efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the context of training. Existing PTQ methods for LLMs limit the optimization scope to scaling transformations between pre- and post-quantization weights. This constraint results in significant errors after quantization, particularly in low-bit configurations. In this paper, we advocate for the direct optimization using equivalent Affine transformations in PTQ (AffineQuant). This approach extends the optimization scope and thus significantly minimizing quantization errors. Additionally, by employing the corresponding inverse matrix, we can ensure equivalence between the pre- and post-quantization outputs of PTQ, thereby maintaining its efficiency and generalization capabilities. To ensure the invertibility of the transformation during optimization, we further introduce a gradual mask optimization method. This method initially focuses on optimizing the diagonal elements and gradually extends to the other elements. Such an approach aligns with the Levy-Desplanques theorem, theoretically ensuring invertibility of the transformation. As a result, significant performance improvements are evident across different LLMs on diverse datasets. Notably, these improvements are most pronounced when using very low-bit quantization, enabling the deployment of large models on edge devices. To illustrate, we attain a C4 perplexity of $14.89$ ({ 10.00$\downarrow$} vs $24.89$ in OmniQuant) on the LLaMA-$7$B model of W$2$A$16$ quantization. AffineQuant significantly outperforms OmniQuant on smaller models, achieving a perplexity of $42.29$ ({ 33.14$\downarrow$} vs $75.43$ in OmniQuant) when using $2$-bit $128$-group quantization for OPT-$125$M, which setting a new state-of-the-art benchmark for PTQ in LLMs. Codes are available in the supplementary materials.
Jadie Adams, Shireen Elhabian
tl;dr: An unsupervised approach to learn correspondence-based statistical shape models of anatomy directly from point clouds.
We present Point2SSM, a novel unsupervised learning approach for constructing correspondence-based statistical shape models (SSMs) directly from raw point clouds. SSM is crucial in clinical research, enabling population-level analysis of morphological variation in bones and organs. Traditional methods of SSM construction have limitations, including the requirement of noise-free surface meshes or binary volumes, reliance on assumptions or templates, and prolonged inference times due to simultaneous optimization of the entire cohort. Point2SSM overcomes these barriers by providing a data-driven solution that infers SSMs directly from raw point clouds, reducing inference burdens and increasing applicability as point clouds are more easily acquired. While deep learning on 3D point clouds has seen success in unsupervised representation learning and shape correspondence, its application to anatomical SSM construction is largely unexplored. We conduct a benchmark of state-of-the-art point cloud deep networks on the SSM task, revealing their limited robustness to clinical challenges such as noisy, sparse, or incomplete input and limited training data. Point2SSM addresses these issues through an attention-based module, providing effective correspondence mappings from learned point features. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing networks in terms of accurate surface sampling and correspondence, better capturing population-level statistics. The source code is provided at https://github.com/jadie1/Point2SSM.
Sinong Geng, Aldo Pacchiano, Andrey Kolobov, Ching-An Cheng
tl;dr: A method for improving many existing offline RL algorithms' performance by blending Monte-Carlo-based heuristic state value estimates into these algorithms' Bellman operators.
We propose **H**e**u**ristic **Bl**ending (HUBL), a simple performance-improving technique for a broad class of offline RL algorithms based on value bootstrapping. HUBL modifies the Bellman operators used in these algorithms, partially replacing the bootstrapped values with heuristic ones that are estimated with Monte-Carlo returns. For trajectories with higher returns, HUBL relies more on the heuristic values and less on bootstrapping; otherwise, it leans more heavily on bootstrapping. HUBL is very easy to combine with many existing offline RL implementations by relabeling the offline datasets with adjusted rewards and discount factors. We derive a theory that explains HUBL's effect on offline RL as reducing offline RL's complexity and thus increasing its finite-sample performance. Furthermore, we empirically demonstrate that HUBL consistently improves the policy quality of four state-of-the-art bootstrapping-based offline RL algorithms (ATAC, CQL, TD3+BC, and IQL), by 9% on average over 27 datasets of the D4RL and Meta-World benchmarks.
Dawid Jan Kopiczko, Tijmen Blankevoort, Yuki M Asano
Low-rank adapation (LoRA) is a popular method that reduces the number of trainable parameters when finetuning large language models, but still faces acute storage challenges when scaling to even larger models or deploying numerous per-user or per-task adapted models. In this work, we present Vector-based Random Matrix Adaptation (VeRA), which significantly reduces the number of trainable parameters compared to LoRA, yet maintains the same performance. It achieves this by using a single pair of low-rank matrices shared across all layers and learning small scaling vectors instead. We demonstrate its effectiveness on the GLUE and E2E benchmarks, image classification tasks, and show its application in instruction-tuning of 7B and 13B language models. Website: https://dkopi.github.io/vera
Dong Wei, Huaijiang Sun, Bin Li, Xiaoning Sun, Shengxiang Hu, Weiqing Li, Jianfeng Lu
tl;dr: Directly exploiting the variety of framerates available in the dataset for high-framerate motion generation.
Generating realistic human motions with high framerate is an underexplored task, due to the varied framerates of training data, huge memory burden brought by high framerates and slow sampling speed of generative models. Recent advances make a compromise for training by downsampling high-framerate details away and discarding low-framerate samples, which suffer from severe information loss and restricted-framerate generation. In this paper, we found that the recent emerging paradigm of Implicit Neural Representations (INRs) that encode a signal into a continuous function can effectively tackle this challenging problem. To this end, we introduce NeRM, a generative model capable of taking advantage of varied-size data and capturing variational distribution of motions for high-framerate motion synthesis. By optimizing latent representation and a auto-decoder conditioned on temporal coordinates, NeRM learns continuous motion fields of sampled motion clips that ingeniously avoid explicit modeling of raw varied-size motions. This expressive latent representation is then used to learn a diffusion model that enables both unconditional and conditional generation of human motions. We demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive results with state-of-the-art methods, and can generate arbitrary framerate motions. Additionally, we show that NeRM is not only memory-friendly, but also highly efficient even when generating high-framerate motions.
Jin Peng Zhou, Yuhuai Wu, Qiyang Li, Roger Baker Grosse
tl;dr: We extract useful mathematical theorems using graph neural networks, evaluating on several downstream tasks to demonstrate their great utility.
Human mathematicians are often good at recognizing modular and reusable theorems that make complex mathematical results within reach. In this paper, we propose a novel method called theoREm-from-prooF extrACTOR (REFACTOR) for training neural networks to mimic this ability in formal mathematical theorem proving. We show on a set of unseen proofs, REFACTOR is able to extract 19.6\% of the theorems that humans would use to write the proofs. When applying the model to the existing Metamath library, REFACTOR extracted 16 new theorems. With newly extracted theorems, we show that the existing proofs in the MetaMath database can be refactored. The new theorems are used very frequently after refactoring, with an average usage of 733.5 times, and help shorten the proof lengths. Lastly, we demonstrate that the prover trained on the new-theorem refactored dataset proves more test theorems and outperforms state-of-the-art baselines by frequently leveraging a diverse set of newly extracted theorems.
Yung-Sung Chuang, Yujia Xie, Hongyin Luo, Yoon Kim, James R. Glass, Pengcheng He
tl;dr: We propose a simple decoding strategy for reducing hallucinations of LLMs without conditioning on retrieved external knowledge or additional fine-tuning.
Despite their impressive capabilities, large language models (LLMs) are prone to hallucinations, i.e., generating content that deviates from facts seen during pretraining. We propose a simple decoding strategy for reducing hallucinations with pretrained LLMs that does not require conditioning on retrieved external knowledge nor additional fine-tuning. Our approach obtains the next-token distribution by contrasting the differences in logits obtained from projecting the later layers versus earlier layers to the vocabulary space, exploiting the fact that factual knowledge in an LLMs has generally been shown to be localized to particular transformer layers. We find that this **D**ecoding by C**o**ntrasting **La**yers (DoLa) approach is able to better surface factual knowledge and reduce the generation of incorrect facts. DoLa consistently improves the truthfulness across multiple choices tasks and open-ended generation tasks, for example improving the performance of LLaMA family models on TruthfulQA by 12-17% absolute points, demonstrating its potential in making LLMs reliably generate truthful facts.
Peihao Wang, Shenghao Yang, Shu Li, Zhangyang Wang, Pan Li
tl;dr: We prove that polynomial dimension of the embedding space are sufficient for DeepSet like architecture to represent any high-dimensional continuous permutation-invariant functions.
Set representation has become ubiquitous in deep learning for modeling the inductive bias of neural networks that are insensitive to the input order. DeepSets is the most widely used neural network architecture for set representation. It involves embedding each set element into a latent space with dimension $L$, followed by a sum pooling to obtain a whole-set embedding, and finally mapping the whole-set embedding to the output. In this work, we investigate the impact of the dimension $L$ on the expressive power of DeepSets. Previous analyses either oversimplified high-dimensional features to be one-dimensional features or were limited to complex analytic activations, thereby diverging from practical use or resulting in $L$ that grows exponentially with the set size $N$ and feature dimension $D$. To investigate the minimal value of $L$ that achieves sufficient expressive power, we present two set-element embedding layers: (a) linear + power activation (LP) and (b) linear + exponential activations (LE). We demonstrate that $L$ being $\operatorname{poly}(N, D)$ is sufficient for set representation using both embedding layers. We also provide a lower bound of $L$ for the LP embedding layer. Furthermore, we extend our results to permutation-equivariant set functions and the complex field.
Izzeddin Gur, Hiroki Furuta, Austin V Huang, Mustafa Safdari, Yutaka Matsuo, Douglas Eck, Aleksandra Faust
tl;dr: We propose a modular language model agents for real-world web automation by leveraging the capability of multi-step planning, long context understanding, and program synthesis in LLMs.
Pre-trained large language models (LLMs) have recently achieved better generalization and sample efficiency in autonomous web automation. However, the performance on real-world websites has still suffered from (1) open domainness, (2) limited context length, and (3) lack of inductive bias on HTML. We introduce WebAgent, an LLM-driven agent that learns from self-experience to complete tasks on real websites following natural language instructions. WebAgent plans ahead by decomposing instructions into canonical sub-instructions, summarizes long HTML documents into task-relevant snippets, and acts on websites via Python programs generated from those. We design WebAgent with Flan-U-PaLM, for grounded code generation, and HTML-T5, new pre-trained LLMs for long HTML documents using local and global attention mechanisms and a mixture of long-span denoising objectives, for planning and summarization. We empirically demonstrate that our modular recipe improves the success on real websites by over 50%, and that HTML-T5 is the best model to solve various HTML understanding tasks; achieving 18.7% higher success rate than the prior method on MiniWoB web automation benchmark, and SoTA performance on Mind2Web, an offline task planning evaluation.
YINGWEI MA, Yue Liu, Yue Yu, Yuanliang Zhang, Yu Jiang, Changjian Wang, Shanshan Li
Large Language models (LLMs) have exhibited remarkable reasoning capabilities and become the foundation of language technologies. Inspired by the great success of code data in training LLMs, we naturally wonder at which training stage introducing code data can really help LLMs reasoning. To this end, this paper systematically explores the impact of code data on LLMs at different stages. Concretely, we introduce the code data at the pre-training stage, instruction-tuning stage, and both of them, respectively. Then, the reasoning capability of LLMs is comprehensively and fairly evaluated via six reasoning tasks. We critically analyze the experimental results and provide conclusions with insights. First, pre-training LLMs with the mixture of code and text can significantly enhance LLMs' general reasoning capability almost without negative transfer on other tasks. Besides, at the instruction-tuning stage, code data endows LLMs the task-specific reasoning capability. Moreover, the dynamic mixing strategy of code and text data assists LLMs to learn reasoning capability step-by-step during training. These insights deepen the understanding of LLMs regarding reasoning ability for their application, such as scientific question answering, legal support, etc.
Ashmit Khandelwal, Aditya Agrawal, Aanisha Bhattacharyya, Yaman Kumar, Somesh Singh, Uttaran Bhattacharya, Ishita Dasgupta, Stefano Petrangeli, Rajiv Ratn Shah, Changyou Chen, Balaji Krishnamurthy
Shannon, in his seminal paper introducing information theory, divided the communication into three levels: technical, semantic, and effectivenss. While the technical level is concerned with accurate reconstruction of transmitted symbols, the semantic and effectiveness levels deal with the inferred meaning and its effect on the receiver. Thanks to telecommunications, the first level problem has produced great advances like the internet. Large Language Models (LLMs) make some progress towards the second goal, but the third level still remains largely untouched. The third problem deals with predicting and optimizing communication for desired receiver behavior. LLMs, while showing wide generalization capabilities across a wide range of tasks, are unable to solve for this. One reason for the underperformance could be a lack of ``behavior tokens'' in LLMs' training corpora. Behavior tokens define receiver behavior over a communication, such as shares, likes, clicks, purchases, retweets, \textit{etc}. While preprocessing data for LLM training, behavior tokens are often removed from the corpora as noise. Therefore, in this paper, we make some initial progress towards reintroducing behavior tokens in LLM training. The trained models, other than showing similar performance to LLMs on content understanding tasks, show generalization capabilities on behavior simulation, content simulation, behavior understanding, and behavior domain adaptation. Using a wide range of tasks on two corpora, we show results on all these capabilities. We call these models Large Content and Behavior Models (LCBMs). Further, to spur more research on LCBMs, we release our new Content Behavior Corpus (CBC), a repository containing communicator, message, and corresponding receiver behavior.
Divyat Mahajan, Ioannis Mitliagkas, Brady Neal, Vasilis Syrgkanis
We study the problem of model selection in causal inference, specifically for the case of conditional average treatment effect (CATE) estimation under binary treatments. Unlike model selection in machine learning, there is no perfect analogue of cross-validation as we do not observe the counterfactual potential outcome for any data point. Towards this, there have been a variety of proxy metrics proposed in the literature, that depend on auxiliary nuisance models estimated from the observed data (propensity score model, outcome regression model). However, the effectiveness of these metrics has only been studied on synthetic datasets as we can access the counterfactual data for them. We conduct an extensive empirical analysis to judge the performance of these metrics introduced in the literature, and novel ones introduced in this work, where we utilize the latest advances in generative modeling to incorporate multiple realistic datasets. Our analysis suggests novel model selection strategies based on careful hyperparameter tuning of CATE estimators and causal ensembling.
Martin Klissarov, Pierluca D'Oro, Shagun Sodhani, Roberta Raileanu, Pierre-Luc Bacon, Pascal Vincent, Amy Zhang, Mikael Henaff
tl;dr: We distill an LLM's feedback into a reward function to train an agent with reinforcement learning in an open ended environment.
Exploring rich environments and evaluating one's actions without prior knowledge is immensely challenging. In this paper, we propose Motif, a general method to interface such prior knowledge from a Large Language Model (LLM) with an agent. Motif is based on the idea of grounding LLMs for decision-making without requiring them to interact with the environment: it elicits preferences from an LLM over pairs of captions to construct an intrinsic reward, which is then used to train agents with reinforcement learning. We evaluate Motif's performance and behavior on the challenging, open-ended and procedurally-generated NetHack game. Surprisingly, by only learning to maximize its intrinsic reward, Motif achieves a higher game score than an algorithm directly trained to maximize the score itself. When combining Motif's intrinsic reward with the environment reward, our method significantly outperforms existing approaches and makes progress on tasks where no advancements have ever been made without demonstrations. Finally, we show that Motif mostly generates intuitive human-aligned behaviors which can be steered easily through prompt modifications, while scaling well with the LLM size and the amount of information given in the prompt.
Valentyn Melnychuk, Dennis Frauen, Stefan Feuerriegel
State-of-the-art methods for conditional average treatment effect (CATE) estimation make widespread use of representation learning. Here, the idea is to reduce the variance of the low-sample CATE estimation by a (potentially constrained) low-dimensional representation. However, low-dimensional representations can lose information about the observed confounders and thus lead to bias, because of which the validity of representation learning for CATE estimation is typically violated. In this paper, we propose a new, representation-agnostic framework for estimating bounds on the representation-induced confounding bias that comes from dimensionality reduction (or other constraints on the representations) in CATE estimation. First, we establish theoretically under which conditions CATEs are non-identifiable given low-dimensional (constrained) representations. Second, as our remedy, we propose to perform partial identification of CATEs or, equivalently, aim at estimating of upper and lower bounds of the representation-induced confounding bias. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our bounds in a series of experiments. In sum, our framework is of direct relevance in practice where the validity of CATE estimation is of importance.
Yifan Jiang, Hao Tang, Jen-Hao Rick Chang, Liangchen Song, Zhangyang Wang, Liangliang Cao
The task of novel view synthesis aims to generate unseen perspectives of an object or scene from a limited set of input images. Nevertheless, synthesizing novel views from a single image remains a significant challenge. Previous approaches tackle this problem by adopting mesh prediction, multi-plane image construction, or more advanced techniques such as neural radiance fields. Recently, a pre-trained diffusion model that is specifically designed for 2D image synthesis has demonstrated its capability in producing photorealistic novel views, if sufficiently optimized with a 3D finetuning task. Despite greatly improved fidelity and generalizability, training such a powerful diffusion model requires a vast volume of training data and model parameters, resulting in a notoriously long time and high computational costs. To tackle this issue, we propose Efficient-3DiM, a highly efficient yet effective framework to learn a single-image novel-view synthesizer. Motivated by our in-depth analysis of the diffusion model inference process, we propose several pragmatic strategies to reduce training overhead to a manageable scale, including a crafted timestep sampling strategy, a superior 3D feature extractor, and an enhanced training scheme. When combined, our framework can reduce the total training time from 10 days to less than 1 day, significantly accelerating the training process on the same computational platform (an instance with 8 Nvidia A100 GPUs). Comprehensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and generalizability of our proposed method.
Sidhika Balachandar, Nikhil Garg, Emma Pierson
tl;dr: We propose the use of domain constraints to improve disease risk prediction in the presence of missing outcome data for the historically untested population
Machine learning models are often trained to predict the outcome resulting from a human decision. For example, if a doctor decides to test a patient for disease, will the patient test positive? A challenge is that historical decision-making determines whether the outcome is observed: we only observe test outcomes for patients doctors historically tested. Untested patients, for whom outcomes are unobserved, may differ from tested patients along observed and unobserved dimensions. We propose a Bayesian model class which captures this setting. The purpose of the model is to accurately estimate risk for both tested and untested patients. Estimating this model is challenging due to the wide range of possibilities for untested patients. To address this, we propose two domain constraints which are plausible in health settings: a prevalence constraint, where the overall disease prevalence is known, and an expertise constraint, where the human decision-maker deviates from purely risk-based decision-making only along a constrained feature set. We show theoretically and on synthetic data that domain constraints improve parameter inference. We apply our model to a case study of cancer risk prediction, showing that the model's inferred risk predicts cancer diagnoses, its inferred testing policy captures known public health policies, and it can identify suboptimalities in test allocation. Though our case study is in healthcare, our analysis reveals a general class of domain constraints which can improve model estimation in many settings.
Dipendra Misra, Akanksha Saran, Tengyang Xie, Alex Lamb, John Langford
tl;dr: We produce theoretical upper bounds, lower bounds, and analysis concerning the value reinforcement learning can gain from unlabeled video data"
We study pre-training representations for decision-making using video data, which is abundantly available for tasks such as game agents and software testing. Even though significant empirical advances have been made on this problem, a theoretical understanding remains absent. We initiate the theoretical investigation into principled approaches for representation learning and focus on learning the latent state representations of the underlying MDP using video data. We study two types of settings: one where there is iid noise in the observation, and a more challenging setting where there is also the presence of exogenous noise, which is non-iid noise that is temporally correlated, such as the motion of people or cars in the background. We study three commonly used approaches: autoencoding, temporal contrastive learning, and forward modeling. We prove upper bounds for temporal contrastive and forward modeling in the presence of only iid noise. We show that these approaches can learn the latent state and use it to do efficient downstream RL with polynomial sample complexity. When exogenous noise is also present, we establish a lower bound result showing that learning from video data can be exponentially worse than learning from action-labeled trajectory data. This partially explains why reinforcement learning with video pre-training is hard. We evaluate these representational learning methods in two visual domains, proving our theoretical findings.
Zhou Lu, Qiuyi Zhang, Xinyi Chen, Fred Zhang, David Woodruff, Elad Hazan
Fast changing states or volatile environments pose a significant challenge to online optimization, which needs to perform rapid adaptation under limited observation. In this paper, we give query and regret optimal bandit algorithms under the strict notion of strongly adaptive regret, which measures the maximum regret over any contiguous interval $I$. Due to its worst-case nature, there is an almost-linear $\Omega(|I|^{1-\epsilon})$ regret lower bound, when only one query per round is allowed [Daniely el al, ICML 2015]. Surprisingly, with just two queries per round, we give Strongly Adaptive Bandit Learner (StABL) that achieves $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n|I|})$ adaptive regret for multi-armed bandits with $n$ arms. The bound is tight and cannot be improved in general. Our algorithm leverages a multiplicative update scheme of varying stepsizes and a carefully chosen observation distribution to control the variance. Furthermore, we extend our results and provide optimal algorithms in the bandit convex optimization setting. Finally, we empirically demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithms under volatile environments and for downstream tasks, such as algorithm selection for hyperparameter optimization.
Alexander G Shypula, Aman Madaan, Yimeng Zeng, Uri Alon, Jacob R. Gardner, Yiming Yang, Milad Hashemi, Graham Neubig, Parthasarathy Ranganathan, Osbert Bastani, Amir Yazdanbakhsh
tl;dr: We introduce a benchmark for reproducible research on neural program optimization, evaluate the capabilities of LLMs, and present three effective strategies for program optimization, achieving up to average 6.86X times speedup with our best model
With the waning of Moore's law, optimizing program performance has become a major focus of software research. However, high-level optimizations such as API and algorithm changes remain elusive due to the difficulty of understanding the semantics of code. Simultaneously, pretrained large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated strong capabilities at solving a wide range of programming tasks. To that end, we introduce a framework for adapting LLMs to high-level program optimization. First, we curate a dataset of performance-improving edits made by human programmers of over 77,000 competitive C++ programming submission pairs, accompanied by extensive unit tests. A major challenge is the significant variability of measuring performance on commodity hardware, which can lead to spurious "improvements". To isolate and reliably evaluate the impact of program optimizations, we design an environment based on the gem5 full system simulator, the de facto simulator used in academia and industry. Next, we propose a broad range of adaptation strategies for code optimization; for prompting, these include retrieval-based few-shot prompting and chain-of-thought, and for finetuning, these include performance-conditioned generation and synthetic data augmentation based on self-play. A combination of these techniques achieves an average speedup of 5.65 times on CodeLlama-13B and 6.86 times on GPT-3.5, surpassing the best human performance (4.06 times). We find our proposed performance-conditioned generation is particularly effective at improving performance as well as increasing the fraction of optimized programs.
Zhenwen Dai, Federico Tomasi, Sina Ghiassian
In-context learning is a promising approach for online policy learning of offline reinforcement learning (RL) methods, which can be achieved at inference time without gradient optimization. However, this method is hindered by significant computational costs resulting from the gathering of large training trajectory sets and the need to train large Transformer models. We address this challenge by introducing an In-context Exploration-Exploitation (ICEE) algorithm, designed to optimize the efficiency of in-context policy learning. Unlike existing models, ICEE performs an exploration-exploitation trade-off at inference time within a Transformer model, without the need for explicit Bayesian inference. Consequently, ICEE can solve Bayesian optimization problems as efficiently as Gaussian process biased methods do, but in significantly less time. Through experiments in grid world environments, we demonstrate that ICEE can learn to solve new RL tasks using only tens of episodes, marking a substantial improvement over the hundreds of episodes needed by the previous in-context learning method.
Michael Kleinman, Alessandro Achille, Stefano Soatto
Critical learning periods are periods early in development where temporary sensory deficits can have a permanent effect on behavior and learned representations. Despite the radical differences between biological and artificial networks, critical learning periods have been empirically observed in both systems. This suggests that critical periods may be fundamental to learning and not an accident of biology. Yet, why exactly critical periods emerge in deep networks is still an open question, and in particular it is unclear whether the critical periods observed in both systems depend on particular architectural or optimization details. To isolate the key underlying factors, we focus on deep linear network models, and show that, surprisingly, such networks also display much of the behavior seen in biology and artificial networks, while being amenable to analytical treatment. We show that critical periods depend on the depth of the model and structure of the data distribution. We also show analytically and in simulations that the learning of features is tied to competition between sources. Finally, we extend our analysis to multi-task learning to show that pre-training on certain tasks can damage the transfer performance on new tasks, and show how this depends on the relationship between tasks and the duration of the pre-training stage. To the best of our knowledge, our work provides the first analytically tractable model that sheds light into why critical learning periods emerge in biological and artificial networks.
Chongyi Zheng, Benjamin Eysenbach, Homer Rich Walke, Patrick Yin, Kuan Fang, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Sergey Levine
Robotic systems that rely primarily on self-supervised learning have the potential to decrease the amount of human annotation and engineering effort required to learn control strategies. In the same way that prior robotic systems have leveraged self-supervised techniques from computer vision (CV) and natural language processing (NLP), our work builds on prior work showing that the reinforcement learning (RL) itself can be cast as a self-supervised problem: learning to reach any goal without human-specified rewards or labels. Despite the seeming appeal, little (if any) prior work has demonstrated how self-supervised RL methods can be practically deployed on robotic systems. By first studying a challenging simulated version of this task, we discover design decisions about architectures and hyperparameters that increase the success rate by $2 \times$. These findings lay the groundwork for our main result: we demonstrate that a self-supervised RL algorithm based on contrastive learning can solve real-world, image-based robotic manipulation tasks, with tasks being specified by a single goal image provided after training.
Zhen Liu, Yao Feng, Yuliang Xiu, Weiyang Liu, Liam Paull, Michael J. Black, Bernhard Schölkopf
tl;dr: We propose a general 3D mesh representation to include non-watertight meshes, which enables efficient mesh reconstruction and generative models.
The creation of photorealistic virtual worlds requires the accurate modeling of 3D surface geometry for a wide range of objects. For this, meshes are appealing since they enable 1) fast physics-based rendering with realistic material and lighting, 2) physical simulation, and 3) are memory-efficient for modern graphics pipelines. Recent work on reconstructing and statistically modeling 3D shape, however, has critiqued meshes as being topologically inflexible. To capture a wide range of object shapes, any 3D representation must be able to model solid, watertight, shapes as well as thin, open, surfaces. Recent work has focused on the former, and methods for reconstructing open surfaces do not support fast reconstruction with material and lighting or unconditional generative modelling. Inspired by the observation that open surfaces can be seen as islands floating on watertight surfaces, we parametrize open surfaces by defining a manifold signed distance field on watertight templates. With this parametrization, we further develop a grid-based and differentiable representation that parametrizes both watertight and non-watertight meshes of arbitrary topology. Our new representation, called Ghost-on-the-Shell (G-Shell), enables two important applications: differentiable rasterization-based reconstruction from multiview images and generative modelling of non-watertight meshes. We empirically demonstrate that G-Shell achieves state-of-the-art performance on non-watertight mesh reconstruction and generation tasks, while also performing effectively for watertight meshes.
Shaofei Cai, Bowei Zhang, Zihao Wang, Xiaojian Ma, Anji Liu, Yitao Liang
We study the problem of building a controller that can follow open-ended instructions in open-world environments. We propose to follow reference videos as instructions, which offer expressive goal specifications while eliminating the need for expensive text-gameplay annotations. A new learning framework is derived to allow learning such instruction-following controllers from gameplay videos while producing a video instruction encoder that induces a structured goal space. We implement our agent GROOT in a simple yet effective encoder-decoder architecture based on causal transformers. We evaluate GROOT against open-world counterparts and human players on a proposed Minecraft SkillForge benchmark. The Elo ratings clearly show that GROOT is closing the human-machine gap as well as exhibiting a 70% winning rate over the best generalist agent baseline. Qualitative analysis of the induced goal space further demonstrates some interesting emergent properties, including the goal composition and complex gameplay behavior synthesis.
Zeqi Xiao, Tai Wang, Jingbo Wang, Jinkun Cao, Wenwei Zhang, Bo Dai, Dahua Lin, Jiangmiao Pang
tl;dr: A unified Human-Scene Interaction framework that supports versatile interactions through language commands
Human-Scene Interaction (HSI) is a vital component of fields like embodied AI and virtual reality. Despite advancements in motion quality and physical plausibility, two pivotal factors, versatile interaction control and the development of a user-friendly interface, require further exploration before the practical application of HSI. This paper presents a unified HSI framework, UniHSI, which supports unified control of diverse interactions through language commands. The framework defines interaction as ``Chain of Contacts (CoC)", representing steps involving human joint-object part pairs. This concept is inspired by the strong correlation between interaction types and corresponding contact regions. Based on the definition, UniHSI constitutes a Large Language Model (LLM) Planner to translate language prompts into task plans in the form of CoC, and a Unified Controller that turns CoC into uniform task execution. To facilitate training and evaluation, we collect a new dataset named ScenePlan that encompasses thousands of task plans generated by LLMs based on diverse scenarios. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework in versatile task execution and generalizability to real scanned scenes.
Mucong Ding, Bang An, Yuancheng Xu, Anirudh Satheesh, Furong Huang
tl;dr: We introduce SAFLEX, a bilevel optimization method for data augmentation, achieving promising results across multiple data types and tasks and seamlessly integrating with existing augmentation techniques.
Data augmentation, a cornerstone technique in deep learning, is crucial in enhancing model performance, especially with scarce labeled data. While traditional techniques are effective, their reliance on hand-crafted methods limits their applicability across diverse data types and tasks. Although modern learnable augmentation methods offer increased adaptability, they are computationally expensive and challenging to incorporate within prevalent augmentation workflows. In this work, we present a novel, efficient method for data augmentation, effectively bridging the gap between existing augmentation strategies and emerging datasets and learning tasks. We introduce SAFLEX (Self-Adaptive Augmentation via Feature Label EXtrapolation), which learns the sample weights and soft labels of augmented samples provided by any given upstream augmentation pipeline, using a specifically designed efficient bilevel optimization algorithm. Remarkably, SAFLEX effectively reduces the noise and label errors of the upstream augmentation pipeline with a marginal computational cost. As a versatile module, SAFLEX excels across diverse datasets, including natural and medical images and tabular data, showcasing its prowess in few-shot learning and out-of-distribution generalization. SAFLEX seamlessly integrates with common augmentation strategies like RandAug, CutMix, and those from large pre-trained generative models like stable diffusion and is also compatible with frameworks such as CLIP's fine-tuning. Our findings highlight the potential to adapt existing augmentation pipelines for new data types and tasks, signaling a move towards more adaptable and resilient training frameworks.
Feng Lu, Lijun Zhang, Xiangyuan Lan, Shuting Dong, Yaowei Wang, Chun Yuan
Recent studies show that vision models pre-trained in generic visual learning tasks with large-scale data can provide useful feature representations for a wide range of visual perception problems. However, few attempts have been made to exploit pre-trained foundation models in visual place recognition (VPR). Due to the inherent difference in training objectives and data between the tasks of model pre-training and VPR, how to bridge the gap and fully unleash the capability of pre-trained models for VPR is still a key issue to address. To this end, we propose a novel method to realize seamless adaptation of pre-trained models for VPR. Specifically, to obtain both global and local features that focus on salient landmarks for discriminating places, we design a hybrid adaptation method to achieve both global and local adaptation efficiently, in which only lightweight adapters are tuned without adjusting the pre-trained model. Besides, to guide effective adaptation, we propose a mutual nearest neighbor local feature loss, which ensures proper dense local features are produced for local matching and avoids time-consuming spatial verification in re-ranking. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with less training data and training time. Our method ranks 1st on the leaderboard of MSLS place recognition challenge, and uses about only 3% retrieval runtime of the two-stage VPR method with RANSAC-based spatial verification. The code will be publicly available.
Pan Lu, Hritik Bansal, Tony Xia, Jiacheng Liu, Chunyuan Li, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Hao Cheng, Kai-Wei Chang, Michel Galley, Jianfeng Gao
tl;dr: We introduce MathVista, a novel benchmark for evaluating mathematical reasoning capabilities within visual contexts, and conduct extensive experiments on 11 foundation models.
Although Large Language Models (LLMs) and Large Multimodal Models (LMMs) exhibit impressive skills in various domains, their ability for mathematical reasoning within visual contexts has not been formally examined. Equipping LLMs and LMMs with this capability is vital for general-purpose AI assistants and showcases promising potential in education, data analysis, and scientific discovery. To bridge this gap, we present MathVista, a benchmark designed to amalgamate challenges from diverse mathematical and visual tasks. We first taxonomize the key task types, reasoning skills, and visual contexts from the literature to guide our selection from 28 existing math-focused and visual question answering datasets. Then, we construct three new datasets, IQTest, FunctionQA, and PaperQA, to accommodate for missing types of visual contexts. The problems featured often require deep visual understanding beyond OCR or image captioning, and compositional reasoning with rich domain-specific tools, thus posing a notable challenge to existing models. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of 11 prominent open-source and proprietary foundation models (LLMs, LLMs augmented with tools, and LMMs). The best-performing model, Multimodal Bard, achieves only 58\% of human performance (34.8\% vs 60.3\%), indicating ample room for further improvement. Given this significant gap, MathVista fuels future research in the development of general-purpose AI agents capable of tackling mathematically intensive and visually rich real-world tasks.
Rembert Daems, Manfred Opper, Guillaume Crevecoeur, Tolga Birdal
tl;dr: We propose a method to perform variational inference for stochastic differential equations driven by fractional Brownian motion.
We present a novel variational framework for performing inference in (neural) stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by Markov-approximate fractional Brownian motion (fBM). SDEs offer a versatile tool for modeling real-world continuous-time dynamic systems with inherent noise and randomness. Combining SDEs with the powerful inference capabilities of variational methods, enables the learning of representative function distributions through stochastic gradient descent. However, conventional SDEs typically assume the underlying noise to follow a Brownian motion (BM), which hinders their ability to capture long-term dependencies. In contrast, fractional Brownian motion (fBM) extends BM to encompass non-Markovian dynamics, but existing methods for inferring fBM parameters are either computationally demanding or statistically inefficient. In this paper, building upon the Markov approximation of fBM, we derive the evidence lower bound essential for efficient variational inference of posterior path measures, drawing from the well-established field of stochastic analysis. Additionally, we provide a closed-form expression to determine optimal approximation coefficients. Furthermore, we propose the use of neural networks to learn the drift, diffusion and control terms within our variational posterior, leading to the variational training of neural-SDEs. In this framework, we also optimize the Hurst index, governing the nature of our fractional noise. Beyond validation on synthetic data, we contribute a novel architecture for variational latent video prediction,—an approach that, to the best of our knowledge, enables the first variational neural-SDE application to video perception.
Sewon Min, Suchin Gururangan, Eric Wallace, Weijia Shi, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Noah A. Smith, Luke Zettlemoyer
The legality of training language models (LMs) on copyrighted or otherwise restricted data is under intense debate. However, as we show, model performance significantly degrades if trained only on low-risk text (e.g., out-of-copyright books or government documents), due to its limited size and domain coverage. We present SILO, a new language model that manages this risk-performance tradeoff during inference. SILO is built by (1) training a parametric LM on the Open License Corpus (OLC), a new corpus we curate with 228B tokens of public domain and permissively licensed text and (2) augmenting it with a more general and easily modifiable nonparametric datastore (e.g., containing copyrighted books or news) that is only queried during inference. The datastore allows use of high-risk data without training on it, supports sentence-level data attribution, and enables data producers to opt out from the model by removing content from the store. These capabilities can foster compliance with data-use regulations such as the fair use doctrine in the United States and the GDPR in the European Union. Our experiments show that the parametric LM struggles on its own with domains not covered by OLC. However, access to the datastore greatly improves out of domain performance, closing 90% of the performance gap with an LM trained on the Pile, a more diverse corpus with mostly high-risk text. We also analyze which nonparametric approach works best, where the remaining errors lie, and how performance scales with datastore size. Our results suggest that it is possible to build high quality language models while mitigating legal risk.
Xuefeng Liu, Takuma Yoneda, Rick Stevens, Matthew Walter, Yuxin Chen
While reinforcement learning (RL) has shown promising performance, its sample complexity continues to be a substantial hurdle, restricting its broader application across a variety of domains. Imitation learning (IL) utilizes oracles to improve sample efficiency, yet it is often constrained by the quality of the oracles deployed. To address the demand for robust policy improvement in real-world scenarios, we introduce a novel algorithm, Robust Policy Improvement (RPI), which actively interleaves between IL and RL based on an online estimate of their performance. RPI draws on the strengths of IL, using oracle queries to facilitate exploration—an aspect that is notably challenging in sparse-reward RL—particularly during the early stages of learning. As learning unfolds, RPI gradually transitions to RL, effectively treating the learned policy as an improved oracle. This algorithm is capable of learning from and improving upon a diverse set of black-box oracles. Integral to RPI are Robust Active Policy Selection (RAPS) and Robust Policy Gradient (RPG), both of which reason over whether to perform state-wise imitation from the oracles or learn from its own value function when the learner’s performance surpasses that of the oracles in a specific state. Empirical evaluations and theoretical analysis validate that RPI excels in comparison to existing state-of-the-art methodologies, demonstrating superior performance across various benchmark domains.
Jingyu Chen, Runlin Lei, Zhewei Wei
tl;dr: We introduce spectral polynomial filters into graph contrastive learning to model heterophilic graphs.
Recently, Graph Contrastive Learning (GCL) has achieved significantly superior performance in self-supervised graph representation learning. However, the existing GCL technique has inherent smooth characteristics because of its low-pass GNN encoder and objective based on homophily assumption, which poses a challenge when applying it to heterophilic graphs. In supervised learning tasks, spectral GNNs with polynomial approximation excel in both homophilic and heterophilic settings by adaptively fitting graph filters of arbitrary shapes. Yet, their applications in unsupervised learning are rarely explored. Based on the above analysis, a natural question arises: \textit{Can we incorporate the excellent properties of spectral polynomial filters into graph contrastive learning?} In this paper, we address the question by studying the necessity of introducing high-pass information for heterophily from a spectral perspective. We propose PolyGCL, a GCL pipeline that utilizes polynomial filters to achieve contrastive learning between the low-pass and high-pass views. Specifically, PolyGCL utilizes polynomials with learnable filter functions to generate different spectral views and an objective that incorporates high-pass information through a linear combination. We theoretically prove that PolyGCL outperforms previous GCL paradigms when applied to graphs with varying levels of homophily. We conduct extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets, which demonstrate the promising performance of PolyGCL on homophilic and heterophilic graphs.
Tatsunori Taniai, Ryo Igarashi, Yuta Suzuki, Naoya Chiba, Kotaro Saito, Yoshitaka Ushiku, Kanta Ono
tl;dr: Propose a transformer for crystal property prediction by mimicking interatomic potential summations via self-attention.
Predicting physical properties of materials from their crystal structures is a fundamental problem in materials science. In peripheral areas such as the prediction of molecular properties, fully connected attention networks have been shown to be successful. However, unlike these finite atom arrangements, crystal structures are infinitely repeating, periodic arrangements of atoms, whose fully connected attention results in *infinitely connected attention*. In this work, we show that this infinitely connected attention can lead to a computationally tractable formulation, interpreted as *neural potential summation*, that performs infinite interatomic potential summations in a deeply learned feature space. We then propose a simple yet effective Transformer-based encoder architecture for crystal structures called *Crystalformer*. Compared to an existing Transformer-based model, the proposed model requires only 29.4% of the number of parameters, with minimal modifications to the original Transformer architecture. Despite the architectural simplicity, the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods for various property regression tasks on the Materials Project and JARVIS-DFT datasets.
Shida Wang, Zhong Li, Qianxiao Li
We prove an inverse approximation theorem for the approximation of nonlinear sequence-to-sequence relationships using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). This is a so-called Bernstein-type result in approximation theory, which deduces properties of a target function under the assumption that it can be effectively approximated by a hypothesis space. In particular, we show that nonlinear sequence relationships that can be stably approximated by nonlinear RNNs must have an exponential decaying memory structure - a notion that can be made precise. This extends the previously identified curse of memory in linear RNNs into the general nonlinear setting, and quantifies the essential limitations of the RNN architecture for learning sequential relationships with long-term memory. Based on the analysis, we propose a principled reparameterization method to overcome the limitations. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical experiments.
Hongwei Wen, Annika Betken, Hanyuan Hang
We consider the domain adaptation problem in the context of label shift, where the label distributions between source and target domain differ, but the conditional distributions of features given the label are the same. To solve the label shift adaption problem, we develop a novel matching framework named \textit{class probability matching} (\textit{CPM}). It is inspired by a new understanding of the source domain's class probability, as well as a specific relationship between class probability ratios and feature probability ratios between the source and target domains. CPM is able to maintain the same theoretical guarantee with the existing feature probability matching framework, while significantly improving the computational efficiency due to directly matching the probabilities of the label variable. Within the CPM framework, we propose an algorithm named \textit{class probability matching with calibrated networks} (\textit{CPMCN}) for target domain classification. From the theoretical perspective, we establish the generalization bound of the CPMCN method in order to explain the benefits of introducing calibrated networks. From the experimental perspective, real data comparisons show that CPMCN outperforms existing matching-based and EM-based algorithms.
Ziyao Wang, Jianyu Wang, Ang Li
The theoretical landscape of federated learning (FL) undergoes rapid evolution, but its practical application encounters a series of intricate challenges, and hyperparameter optimization is one of these critical challenges. Amongst the diverse adjustments in hyperparameters, the adaptation of the learning rate emerges as a crucial component, holding the promise of significantly enhancing the efficacy of FL systems. In response to this critical need, this paper presents FedHyper, a novel hypergradient-based learning rate adaptation algorithm specifically designed for FL. FedHyper serves as a universal learning rate scheduler that can adapt both global and local rates as the training progresses. In addition, FedHyper not only showcases unparalleled robustness to a spectrum of initial learning rate configurations but also significantly alleviates the necessity for laborious empirical learning rate adjustments. We provide a comprehensive theoretical analysis of FedHyper’s convergence rate and conduct extensive experiments on vision and language benchmark datasets. The results demonstrate that FEDHYPER consistently converges 1.1-3× faster than FedAvg and the competing baselines while achieving superior final accuracy. Moreover, FEDHYPER catalyzes a remarkable surge in accuracy, augmenting it by up to 15% compared to FedAvg under suboptimal initial learning rate settings.
Tri Dao
tl;dr: By reducing the non-matmul FLOPs and better work partitioning, we speed up FlashAttention by 2x, allowing us to train language models with 2x longer sequences.
Scaling Transformers to longer sequence lengths has been a major problem in the last several years, promising to improve performance in language modeling and high-resolution image understanding, as well as to unlock new applications in code, audio, and video generation. The attention layer is the main bottleneck in scaling to longer sequences, as its runtime and memory increase quadratically in the sequence length. FlashAttention [5] exploits the asymmetric GPU memory hierarchy to bring significant memory saving (linear instead of quadratic) and runtime speedup (2-4× compared to optimized baselines), with no approximation. However, FlashAttention is still not nearly as fast as optimized matrix-multiply (GEMM) operations, reaching only 25-40% of the theoretical maximum FLOPs/s. We observe that the inefficiency is due to suboptimal work partitioning between different thread blocks and warps on the GPU, causing either low-occupancy or unnecessary shared memory reads/writes. We propose FlashAttention-2, with better work partitioning to address these issues. In particular, we (1) tweak the algorithm to reduce the number of non-matmul FLOPs (2) parallelize the attention computation, even for a single head, across different thread blocks to increase occupancy, and (3) within each thread block, distribute the work between warps to reduce communication through shared memory. These yield around 2× speedup compared to FlashAttention, reaching 50-73% of the theoretical maximum FLOPs/s on A100 and getting close to the efficiency of GEMM operations. We empirically validate that when used end-to-end to train GPT-style models, FlashAttention-2 reaches training speed of up to 225 TFLOPs/s per A100 GPU (72% model FLOPs utilization).
Chujie Zheng, Hao Zhou, Fandong Meng, Jie Zhou, Minlie Huang
tl;dr: We investigate LLMs' bias and robustness in multiple choice evaluation, and propose an efficient, interpretable, and transferable debiasing method.
Multiple choice questions (MCQs) serve as a common yet important task format in the evaluation of large language models (LLMs). This work shows that modern LLMs are vulnerable to option position changes in MCQs due to their inherent “selection bias”, namely, they prefer to select specific option IDs as answers (like “Option A”). Through extensive empirical analyses with 20 LLMs on three benchmarks, we pinpoint that this behavioral bias primarily stems from LLMs’ token bias, where the model a priori assigns more probabilistic mass to specific option ID tokens (e.g., A/B/C/D) when predicting answers from the option IDs. To mitigate selection bias, we propose a label-free, inference-time debiasing method, called PriDe, which separates the model’s prior bias for option IDs from the overall prediction distribution. PriDe first estimates the prior by permutating option contents on a small number of test samples, and then applies the estimated prior to debias the remaining samples. We demonstrate that it achieves interpretable and transferable debiasing with high computational efficiency. We hope this work can draw broader research attention to the bias and robustness of modern LLMs.
Ziyu Wang, Lejun Min, Gus Xia
tl;dr: We propose a hierarchical music language together with a cascaded diffusion model for whole-song generation of symbolic music.
Recent deep music generation studies have put much emphasis on \textit{music structure} and \textit{long-term} generation. However, we are yet to see high-quality, well-structured whole-song generation. In this paper, we make the first attempt to model a full music piece under the realization of \textit{compositional hierarchy}. With a focus on symbolic representations of pop songs, we define a hierarchical language, in which each level of hierarchy focuses on the context dependency at a certain music scope. The high-level languages reveal whole-song form, phrase, and cadence, whereas the low-level languages focus on notes, chords, and their local patterns. A cascaded diffusion model is trained to model the hierarchical language, where each level is conditioned on its upper levels. Experiments and analysis show that our model is capable of generating full-piece music with recognizable global verse-chorus structure and cadences, and the music quality is higher than the baselines. Additionally, we show that the proposed model is \textit{controllable} in a flexible way. By sampling from the interpretable hierarchical languages or adjusting external model controls, users can control the music flow via various features such as phrase harmonic structures, rhythmic patterns, and accompaniment texture.
Henry Li, Ronen Basri, Yuval Kluger
tl;dr: We develop a framework for cascaded diffusion modeling that supports likelihood training and evaluation.
Cascaded models are multi-scale generative models with a marked capacity for producing perceptually impressive samples at high resolutions. In this work, we show that they can also be excellent likelihood models, so long as we overcome a fundamental difficulty with probabilistic multi-scale models: the intractability of the likelihood function. Chiefly, in cascaded models each intermediary scale introduces extraneous variables that cannot be tractably marginalized out for likelihood evaluation. This issue vanishes by modeling the diffusion process on latent spaces induced by a class of transformations we call hierarchical volume-preserving maps, which decompose spatially structured data in a hierarchical fashion without introducing local distortions in the latent space. We demonstrate that two such maps are well-known in the literature for multiscale modeling: Laplacian pyramids and wavelet transforms. Not only do such reparameterizations allow the likelihood function to be directly expressed as a joint likelihood over the scales, we show that the Laplacian pyramid and wavelet transform also produces significant improvements to the state-of-the-art on a selection of benchmarks in likelihood modeling, including density estimation, lossless compression, and out-of-distribution detection. Investigating the theoretical basis of our empirical gains we uncover deep connections to score matching under the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), which is a well-known surrogate for perceptual similarity.
Karsten Roth, Lukas Thede, A. Sophia Koepke, Oriol Vinyals, Olivier J Henaff, Zeynep Akata
tl;dr: We first show that transferable knowledge exists between any pairs of models pretrained on the same data. We then study and propose approaches to transfer this knowledge between any model pair - independent of relative performances & architectures.
Training deep networks requires various design decisions regarding for instance their architecture, data augmentation, or optimization. In this work, we find these training variations to result in networks learning unique feature sets from the data. Using public model libraries comprising thousands of models trained on canonical datasets like ImageNet, we observe that for arbitrary pairings of pretrained models, one model extracts significant data context unavailable in the other – independent of overall performance. Given any arbitrary pairing of pretrained models and no external rankings (such as separate test sets, e.g. due to data privacy), we investigate if it is possible to transfer such "complementary" knowledge from one model to another without performance degradation – a task made particularly difficult as additional knowledge can be contained in stronger, equiperformant or weaker models. Yet facilitating robust transfer in scenarios agnostic to pretrained model pairings would unlock auxiliary gains and knowledge fusion from any model repository without restrictions on model and problem specifics - including from weaker, lower-performance models. This work therefore provides an initial, in-depth exploration on the viability of such general-purpose knowledge transfer. Across large-scale experiments, we first reveal the shortcomings of standard knowledge distillation techniques, and then propose a much more general extension through data partitioning for successful transfer between nearly all pretrained models, which we show can also be done unsupervised. Finally, we assess both the scalability and impact of fundamental model properties on successful model-agnostic knowledge transfer.
Robin Staab, Mark Vero, Mislav Balunovic, Martin Vechev
tl;dr: We present the first comprehensive study on the capabilities of pretrained LLMs to infer personal attributes from texts given at inference.
Current privacy research on large language models (LLMs) primarily focuses on the issue of extracting memorized training data. At the same time, models’ inference capabilities have increased drastically. This raises the key question of whether current LLMs could violate individuals’ privacy by inferring personal attributes from text given at inference time. In this work, we present the first comprehensive study on the capabilities of pretrained LLMs to infer personal attributes from text. We construct a dataset consisting of real Reddit profiles, and show that current LLMs can infer a wide range of personal attributes (e.g., location, income, sex), achieving up to 85% top-1 and 95% top-3 accuracy at a fraction of the cost (100x) and time (240x) required by humans. As people increasingly interact with LLM-powered chatbots across all aspects of life, we also explore the emerging threat of privacy-invasive chatbots trying to extract personal information through seemingly benign questions. Finally, we show that common mitigations, i.e., text anonymization and model alignment, are currently ineffective at protecting user privacy against LLM inference. Our findings highlight that current LLMs can infer personal data at a previously unattainable scale. In the absence of working defenses, we advocate for a broader discussion around LLM privacy implications beyond memorization, striving for stronger and wider privacy protection.
Chaoming Wang, Tianqiu Zhang, Sichao He, Hongyaoxing Gu, Shangyang Li, Si Wu
tl;dr: We developed BrainPy, a differentiable brain simulator, to help bridge the gap between brain simulation and brain-inspired computing.
Brain simulation builds dynamical models to mimic the structure and functions of the brain, while brain-inspired computing (BIC) develops intelligent systems by learning from the structure and functions of the brain. The two fields are intertwined and should share a common programming framework to facilitate each other's development. However, none of the existing software in the fields can achieve this goal, because traditional brain simulators lack differentiability for training, while existing deep learning (DL) frameworks fail to capture the biophysical realism and complexity of brain dynamics. In this paper, we introduce BrainPy, a differentiable brain simulator developed using JAX and XLA, with the aim of bridging the gap between brain simulation and BIC. BrainPy expands upon the functionalities of JAX, a powerful AI framework, by introducing complete capabilities for flexible, efficient, and scalable brain simulation. It offers a range of sparse and event-driven operators for efficient and scalable brain simulation, an abstraction for managing the intricacies of synaptic computations, a modular and flexible interface for constructing multi-scale brain models, and an object-oriented just-in-time compilation approach to handle the memory-intensive nature of brain dynamics. We showcase the efficiency and scalability of BrainPy on benchmark tasks, and highlight its differentiable simulation for biologically plausible spiking models.
Xiang Yue, Xingwei Qu, Ge Zhang, Yao Fu, Wenhao Huang, Huan Sun, Yu Su, Wenhu Chen
We introduce MAmmoTH, a series of open-source large language models (LLMs) specifically tailored for general math problem-solving. The MAmmoTH models are trained on MathInstruct, our meticulously curated instruction tuning dataset. MathInstruct is compiled from 13 math datasets with intermediate rationales, six of which have rationales newly curated by us. It presents a unique hybrid of chain-of-thought (CoT) and program-of-thought (PoT) rationales, and also ensures extensive coverage of diverse fields in math. The hybrid of CoT and PoT not only unleashes the potential of tool use but also allows different thought processes for different math problems. As a result, the MAmmoTH series substantially outperform existing open-source models on nine mathematical reasoning datasets across all scales with an average accuracy gain between 16% and 32%. Remarkably, our MAmmoTH-7B model reaches 33% on MATH (a competition-level dataset), which exceeds the best open-source 7B model (WizardMath) by 23%, and the MAmmoTH-34B model achieves 44% accuracy on MATH, even surpassing GPT-4’s CoT result. Our work underscores the importance of diverse problem coverage and the use of hybrid rationales in developing superior math generalist models.
Mengyuan Chen, Junyu Gao, Changsheng Xu
tl;dr: We propose a relaxed version of evidential deep learning by deprecating two nonessential settings not mandated by subjective logic theory.
A newly-arising uncertainty estimation method named Evidential Deep Learning (EDL), which can obtain reliable predictive uncertainty in a single forward pass, has garnered increasing interest. Guided by the subjective logic theory, EDL obtains Dirichlet concentration parameters from deep neural networks, thus constructing a Dirichlet probability density function (PDF) to model the distribution of class probabilities. Despite its great success, we argue that EDL keeps nonessential settings in both stages of model construction and optimization. In this work, our analysis indicates that (1) in the construction of the Dirichlet PDF, a commonly ignored parameter termed prior weight governs the balance between leveraging the proportion of evidence and its magnitude in deriving predictive scores, and (2) in model optimization, a variance-minimized regularization term adopted by traditional EDL encourages the Dirichlet PDF to approach a Dirac delta function, potentially exacerbating overconfidence. Therefore, we propose the R-EDL (Relaxed-EDL) method by relaxing these nonessential settings. Specifically, R-EDL treats the prior weight as an adjustable hyper-parameter instead of a fixed scalar, and directly optimizes the expectation of the Dirichlet PDF provided to deprecate the variance-minimized regularization term. Extensive experiments and SOTA performances demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Source codes are provided in Appendix E.
Lorenzo Loconte, Aleksanteri Mikulus Sladek, Stefan Mengel, Martin Trapp, Arno Solin, Nicolas Gillis, Antonio Vergari
tl;dr: We show how to effectively represent and learn a generic class of (deep) mixture models encoding subtractions of probability distributions, and theoretically prove they can be exponentially more expressive than addition-only mixture models.
Mixture models are traditionally represented and learned by adding several distributions as components. Allowing mixtures to subtract probability mass or density can drastically reduce the number of components needed to model complex distributions. However, learning such subtractive mixtures while ensuring they still encode a non-negative function is challenging. We investigate how to learn and perform inference on deep subtractive mixtures by squaring them. We do this in the framework of probabilistic circuits, which enable us to represent tensorized mixtures and generalize several other subtractive models. We theoretically prove that the class of squared circuits allowing subtractions can be exponentially more expressive than traditional additive mixtures; and, we empirically show this increased expressiveness on a series of real-world distribution estimation tasks.
Zhipeng Xie, Yahe Li
The information bottleneck principle provides an information-theoretic method for learning a good representation as a tradeoff between conciseness and predictive ability, which can reduce the information redundancy, eliminate irrelevant and superfluous features, and thus enhance the in-domain generalizability. However, in low-resource or out-of-domain scenarios where the assumption of iid does not necessarily hold true, superfluous (or redundant) relevant features may be supplemental to the mainline features of the model, and be beneficial in making prediction for test dataset with distribution shifts. To address this problem, we propose to keep as much relevant information as possible in use for making predictions. A three-stage supervised learning framework is designed and implemented to jointly learn the mainline and supplemental features, relieving supplemental features from the suppression of mainline features. Experiments on image and text classification tasks have shown our method substantially outperforms several baseline and state-of-the-art methods, especially in low resource cases.
Zhentao Tan, Xiaodan Li, Yue Wu, Qi Chu, Le Lu, Nenghai Yu, Jieping Ye
tl;dr: We propose a linear-based re-parameterized module to improve the performance of vanilla lightweight ViTs.
Large-scale Vision Transformers have achieved promising performance on downstream tasks through feature pre-training. However, the performance of vanilla lightweight Vision Transformers (ViTs) is still far from satisfactory compared to that of recent lightweight CNNs or hybrid networks. In this paper, we aim to unlock the potential of vanilla lightweight ViTs by exploring the adaptation of the widely-used re-parameterization technology to ViTs for improving learning ability during training without increasing the inference cost. The main challenge comes from the fact that CNNs perfectly complement with re-parameterization over convolution and batch normalization, while vanilla Transformer architectures are mainly comprised of linear and layer normalization layers. We propose to incorporate the nonlinear ensemble into linear layers by expanding the depth of the linear layers with batch normalization and fusing multiple linear features with hierarchical representation ability through a pyramid structure. We also discover and solve a new transformer-specific distribution rectification problem caused by multi-branch re-parameterization. Finally, we propose our Two-Dimensional Re-parameterized Linear module (TDRL) for ViTs. Under the popular self-supervised pre-training and supervised fine-tuning strategy, our TDRL can be used in these two stages to enhance both generic and task-specific representation. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed method not only boosts the performance of vanilla Vit-Tiny on various vision tasks to new state-of-the-art (SOTA) but also shows promising generality ability on other networks. Code will be available.
Francisco Vargas, Shreyas Padhy, Denis Blessing, Nikolas Nüsken
tl;dr: Connecting optimal transport and variational inference, we develop a score-based annealing technique for Bayesian computation.
Connecting optimal transport and variational inference, we present a principled and systematic framework for sampling and generative modelling centred around divergences on path space. Our work culminates in the development of the Controlled Monte Carlo Diffusion sampler (CMCD) for Bayesian computation, a score-based annealing technique that crucially adapts both forward and backward dynamics in a diffusion model. On the way, we clarify the relationship between the EM-algorithm and iterative proportional fitting (IPF) for Schroedinger bridges, deriving as well a regularised objective that bypasses the iterative bottleneck of standard IPF-updates. Finally, we show that CMCD has a strong foundation in the Jarzinsky and Crooks identities from statistical physics, and that it convincingly outperforms competing approaches across a wide array of experiments.
Lunjun Zhang, Yuwen Xiong, Ze Yang, Sergio Casas, Rui Hu, Raquel Urtasun
Learning world models can teach an agent how the world works in an unsupervised manner. Even though it can be viewed as a special case of sequence modeling, progress for scaling world models on robotic applications such as autonomous driving has been somewhat less rapid than scaling language models with Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPT). We identify two reasons as major bottlenecks: dealing with complex and unstructured observation space, and having a scalable generative model. Consequently, we propose a novel world modeling approach that first tokenizes sensor observations with VQVAE, then predicts the future via discrete diffusion. To efficiently decode and denoise tokens in parallel, we recast Masked Generative Image Transformer into the discrete diffusion framework with a few simple changes, resulting in notable improvement. When applied to learning world models on point cloud observations, our model reduces prior SOTA Chamfer distance by more than 65% for 1s prediction, and more than 50% for 3s prediction, across NuScenes, KITTI Odometry, and Argoverse2 datasets. Our results demonstrate that discrete diffusion on tokenized agent experience can unlock the power of GPT-like unsupervised learning for robotic agents.
Sejun Park, Sanghyuk Chun, Wonyeol Lee
Forward- or reverse-mode automatic differentiation (AD) is a popular algorithm for computing the derivative of a function expressed by a program. AD always outputs the correct derivative if a program does not use any non-differentiable functions and control flows; however, it may return an arbitrary value otherwise. In this work, we investigate what AD computes for neural networks that may contain non-differentiable functions such as ReLU and maxpools. We first prove that AD always returns a generalized derivative called a Clarke subderivative for networks with pointwise activation functions, if the minibatch size is one and all non-differentiable neurons have distinct bias parameters. We show that the same conclusion does not hold otherwise, but does hold under some mild sufficient conditions. We also prove similar results for more general networks that can use maxpools and bias parameters shared across different neurons. We empirically check our sufficient conditions over popular network architectures and observe that AD almost always computes a Clarke subderivative in practical learning setups.
Neta Shaul, Juan Perez, Ricky T. Q. Chen, Ali Thabet, Albert Pumarola, Yaron Lipman
tl;dr: A novel method to build costume-made ODE solvers for sampling pre-trained diffusion/flow models. Significantly improves generation quality for low number of function evaluations.
Diffusion or flow-based models are powerful generative paradigms that are notoriously hard to sample as samples are defined as solutions to high-dimensional Ordinary or Stochastic Differential Equations (ODEs/SDEs) which require a large Number of Function Evaluations (NFE) to approximate well. Existing methods to alleviate the costly sampling process include model distillation and designing dedicated ODE solvers. However, distillation is costly to train and sometimes can deteriorate quality, while dedicated solvers still require relatively large NFE to produce high quality samples. In this paper we introduce ``Bespoke solvers'', a novel framework for constructing custom ODE solvers tailored to the ODE of a given pre-trained flow model. Our approach optimizes an order consistent and parameter-efficient solver (e.g., with 80 learnable parameters), is trained for roughly 1\% of the GPU time required for training the pre-trained model, and significantly improves approximation and generation quality compared to dedicated solvers. For example, a Bespoke solver for a CIFAR10 model produces samples with Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) of 2.73 with 10 NFE, and gets to 1\% of the Ground Truth (GT) FID (2.59) for this model with only 20 NFE. On the more challenging ImageNet-64$\times$64, Bespoke samples at 2.2 FID with 10 NFE, and gets within 2\% of GT FID (1.71) with 20 NFE.
Yuan Gao, WEIZHONG ZHANG, Wenhan Luo, Lin Ma, Jin-Gang Yu, Gui-Song Xia, Jiayi Ma
tl;dr: We propose a novel soft-parameter sharing architecture-based method optimized by Neural Architecture Search, which exploits auxiliary task labels to boost the primary task performance without increasing the inference cost for the primary task.
We aim at exploiting additional auxiliary labels from an independent (auxiliary) task to boost the primary task performance which we focus on, while preserving a single task inference cost of the primary task. While most existing auxiliary learning methods are optimization-based relying on loss weights/gradients manipulation, our method is architecture-based with a flexible asymmetric structure for the primary and auxiliary tasks, which produces different networks for training and inference. Specifically, starting from two single task networks/branches (each representing a task), we propose a novel method with evolving networks where only primary-to-auxiliary links exist as the cross-task connections after convergence. These connections can be removed during the primary task inference, resulting in a single task inference cost. We achieve this by formulating a Neural Architecture Search (NAS) problem, where we initialize bi-directional connections in the search space and guide the NAS optimization converging to an architecture with only the single-side primary-to-auxiliary connections. Moreover, our method can be incorporated with existing optimization-based auxiliary learning approaches. Extensive experiments with 6 tasks on NYU v2, CityScapes, and Taskonomy datasets using VGG-16, ResNet-50, and ViTBase backbones validate the promising performance. The codes will be released.
Atsushi Shimizu, Xiaoou Cheng, Christopher Musco, Jonathan Weare
tl;dr: Better active learning (in theory and practice) in the presence of adversarial noise via non-independent leverage score sampling.
We show how to obtain improved active learning methods in the agnostic (adversarial noise) setting by combining marginal leverage score sampling with non-independent sampling strategies that promote spatial coverage. In particular, we propose an easily implemented method based on the \emph{pivotal sampling algorithm}, which we test on problems motivated by learning-based methods for parametric PDEs and uncertainty quantification. In comparison to independent sampling, our method reduces the number of samples needed to reach a given target accuracy by up to $50\%$. We support our findings with two theoretical results. First, we show that any non-independent leverage score sampling method that obeys a weak \emph{one-sided $\ell_{\infty}$ independence condition} (which includes pivotal sampling) can actively learn $d$ dimensional linear functions with $O(d\log d)$ samples, matching independent sampling. This result extends recent work on matrix Chernoff bounds under $\ell_{\infty}$ independence, and may be of interest for analyzing other sampling strategies beyond pivotal sampling. Second, we show that, for the important case of polynomial regression, our pivotal method obtains an improved bound of $O(d)$ samples.
Samuel Holt, Max Ruiz Luyten, Mihaela van der Schaar
Transformer-based large language models (LLMs) are constrained by the fixed context window of the underlying transformer architecture, hindering their ability to produce long and coherent outputs. Memory-augmented LLMs are a promising solution, but current approaches cannot handle long output generation tasks since they (1) only focus on reading memory and reduce its evolution to the concatenation of new memories or (2) use very specialized memories that cannot adapt to other domains. This paper presents L2MAC, the first practical LLM-based stored-program automatic computer for long and consistent output generation. Its memory has two components: the instruction registry, which is populated with a prompt program to solve the user-given task, and a file store, which will contain the final and intermediate outputs. Each instruction in turn is executed by a separate LLM instance, whose context is managed by a control unit capable of precise memory reading and writing to ensure effective interaction with the file store. These components enable L2MAC to generate extensive outputs, bypassing the constraints of the finite context window while producing outputs that fulfill a complex user-specified task. We empirically demonstrate that L2MAC achieves state-of-the-art performance in generating large codebases for system design tasks, significantly outperforming other coding methods in implementing the detailed user-specified task, and provide valuable insights into how it achieves this.
Alexander Theus, Olin Geimer, Friedrich Wicke, Thomas Hofmann, Sotiris Anagnostidis, Sidak Pal Singh
tl;dr: Marrying Pruning and Fusion
Pruning is one of the mainstream methods to compress over-parameterized neural networks, resulting in significant practical benefits. Recently, another line of work has explored the direction of fusion, i.e. merging, independently trained neural networks. Here, we seek to marry the two approaches in a bid to combine their advantages into a single approach, which we term `Intra-Fusion'. Specifically, we implicitly utilize the pruning criteria to result in more informed fusion. Agnostic to the choice of a specific neuron-importance metric, Intra-Fusion can typically prune an additional considerable amount of the parameters while retaining the same accuracy as the standard pruning approach. Additionally, we explore how fusion can be added to the pruning process to significantly decrease the training time while maintaining competitive performance. We benchmark our results for various networks on commonly used datasets such as CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and ImageNet. More broadly, we hope that the proposed approach invigorates exploration into a fresh alternative to the predominant compression approaches.
Ganlin Yang, Guoqiang Wei, Zhizheng Zhang, Yan Lu, Dong Liu
Most Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) exhibit limited generalization capabilities,which restrict their applicability in representing multiple scenes using a single model. To address this problem, existing generalizable NeRF methods simply condition the model on image features. These methods still struggle to learn precise global representations over diverse scenes since they lack an effective mechanism for interacting among different points and views. In this work, we unveil that3D implicit representation learning can be significantly improved by mask-based modeling. Specifically, we propose **m**asked **r**ay and **v**iew **m**odeling for generalizable **NeRF** (**MRVM-NeRF**), which is a self-supervised pretraining target to predict complete scene representations from partially masked features along each ray. With this pretraining target, MRVM-NeRF enables better use of correlations across different rays and views as the geometry priors, which thereby strengthens the capability of capturing intricate details within the scenes and boosts the generalization capability across different scenes. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed MRVM-NeRF on both synthetic and real-world datasets, qualitatively and quantitatively. Besides, we also conduct experiments to show the compatibility of our proposed method with various backbones and its superiority under few-shot cases.
Eliya Segev, Maya Alroy, Ronen Katsir, Noam Wies, Ayana Shenhav, Yael Sapir Ben-Oren, David Zar, Oren Tadmor, Jacob Bitterman, Amnon Shashua, Tal Rosenwein
tl;dr: A framework to add a controllability to the predicted alignment in CTC training according to a desired property
Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) is a widely used criterion for training supervised sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models. It learns the alignments between the input and output sequences, by marginalizing over the perfect alignments (that yield the ground truth), at the expense of the imperfect ones. This dichotomy, and in particular the equal treatment of all perfect alignments, results in a lack of controllability over the predicted alignments. This controllability is essential for capturing properties that hold significance in real-world applications. Here we propose Align With Purpose (AWP), a general Plug-and-Play framework for enhancing a desired property in models trained with the CTC criterion. We do that by complementing the CTC loss with an additional loss term that prioritizes alignments according to a desired property. AWP does not require any intervention in the CTC loss function, and allows to differentiate between both perfect and imperfect alignments for a variety of properties. We apply our framework in the domain of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and show its generality in terms of property selection, architectural choice, and scale of training dataset (up to 280,000 hours). To demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework, we apply it to two unrelated properties: token emission time for latency optimization and word error rate (WER). For the former, we report an improvement of up to 590ms in latency optimization with a minor reduction in WER, and for the latter, we report a relative improvement of 4.5\% in WER over the baseline models. To the best of our knowledge, these applications have never been demonstrated to work on this scale of data. Notably, our method can be easily implemented using only a few lines of code and can be extended to other alignment-free loss functions and to domains other than ASR.
Sharut Gupta, Joshua Robinson, Derek Lim, Soledad Villar, Stefanie Jegelka
tl;dr: We add additional geometric structure to the embedding space of contrastive learning by enforcing transformations of input space to correspond to simple (i.e., linear) transformations of embedding space.
Self-supervised learning converts raw perceptual data such as images to a compact space where simple Euclidean distances measure meaningful variations in data. In this paper, we extend this formulation by adding additional geometric structure to the embedding space by enforcing transformations of input space to correspond to simple (i.e., linear) transformations of embedding space. Specifically, in the contrastive learning setting, we introduce an equivariance objective and theoretically prove that its minima force augmentations on input space to correspond to rotations on the spherical embedding space. We show that merely combining our equivariant loss with a non-collapse term results in non-trivial representations, without requiring invariance to data augmentations. Optimal performance is achieved by also encouraging approximate invariance, where input augmentations correspond to small rotations. Our method, CARE: Contrastive Augmentation-induced Rotational Equivariance, leads to improved performance on downstream tasks and ensures sensitivity in embedding space to important variations in data (e.g., color) that standard contrastive methods do not achieve.
Sravanthi Gurugubelli, Sundeep Prabhakar Chepuri
Simplicial neural networks (SNNs) are deep models for higher-order graph representation learning. SNNs learn low-dimensional embeddings of simplices in a simplicial complex by aggregating features of their respective upper, lower, boundary, and coboundary adjacent simplices. The aggregation in SNNs is carried out during training. Since the number of simplices of various orders in a simplicial complex is significantly large, the memory and training-time requirement in SNNs is enormous. In this work, we propose a scalable simplicial-aware neural network (SaNN) model with a constant run-time and memory requirements independent of the size of the simplicial complex and the density of interactions in it. SaNN is based on pre-aggregated simplicial-aware features as inputs to a neural network, so it has a strong simplicial-structural inductive bias. We provide theoretical conditions under which SaNN is provably more powerful than the Weisfeiler-Lehman (WL) graph isomorphism test and as powerful as the simplicial Weisfeiler-Lehman (SWL) test. We also show that SaNN is permutation and orientation equivariant and satisfies simplicial-awareness of the highest order in a simplicial complex. We demonstrate via numerical experiments that despite being computationally economical, the proposed model achieves state-of-the-art performance in predicting trajectories, simplicial closures, and classifying graphs.
Hailey Joren, Charles Thomas Marx, Berk Ustun
tl;dr: We introduce conceptual safeguards, a method for selective classification in concept bottleneck models that can reliably promote safety and interpretability in automation tasks
Machine learning models are often used to automate routine tasks. In settings where mistakes are costly, we can trade off accuracy for coverage by abstaining from making a prediction on instances for which the model is uncertain. In this work, we present a new approach to selective classification in deep learning with concepts. Our approach constructs a concept bottleneck model where the front-end model can make predictions given soft concepts and leverage concept confirmation to improve coverage and performance under abstention. We develop techniques to propagate uncertainty and identify concepts for confirmation. We evaluate our approach on real-world and synthetic datasets, showing that it can improve coverage while maintaining performance across a range of tasks.
seyed amir hossein saberi, Amir Najafi, Alireza Heidari, Mohammad Hosein Movasaghinia, Abolfazl Motahari, Babak Khalaj
tl;dr: We propose a framework to incorporate unlabeled out-of-domain samples in order to enhance the generalization error. We derive explicit bounds for Gaussian mixture models, and test our method on real datasets.
We propose a novel framework for incorporating unlabeled data into semi-supervised classification problems, where scenarios involving the minimization of either i) adversarially robust or ii) non-robust loss functions have been considered. Notably, we allow the unlabeled samples to deviate slightly (in total variation sense) from the in-domain distribution. The core idea behind our framework is to combine Distributionally Robust Optimization (DRO) with self-supervised training. As a result, we also leverage efficient polynomial-time algorithms for the training stage. From a theoretical standpoint, we apply our framework on the classification problem of a mixture of two Gaussians in $\mathbb{R}^d$, where in addition to the $m$ independent and labeled samples from the true distribution, a set of $n$ (usually with $n\gg m$) out of domain and unlabeled samples are gievn as well. Using only the labeled data, it is known that the generalization error can be bounded by $\propto\left(d/m\right)^{1/2}$. However, using our method on both isotropic and non-isotropic Gaussian mixture models, one can derive a new set of analytically explicit and non-asymptotic bounds which show substantial improvement on the generalization error compared ERM. Our results underscore two significant insights: 1) out-of-domain samples, even when unlabeled, can be harnessed to narrow the generalization gap, provided that the true data distribution adheres to a form of the "cluster assumption", and 2) the semi-supervised learning paradigm can be regarded as a special case of our framework when there are no distributional shifts. We validate our claims through experiments conducted on a variety of synthetic and real-world datasets.
Thomas Kleine Buening, Aadirupa Saha, Christos Dimitrakakis, Haifeng Xu
tl;dr: We introduce the strategic click-bandit problem and design an incentive-aware learning algorithm that induces desirable arm strategies while simultaneously minimizing regret.
We study a strategic variant of the multi-armed bandit problem, which we coin the strategic click-bandit. This model is motivated by applications in online recommendation where the choice of recommended items depends on both the click-through rates and the post-click rewards. Like in classical bandits, rewards follow a fixed unknown distribution. However, we assume that the click-rate of each arm is chosen strategically by the arm (e.g., a host on Airbnb) in order to maximize the number of times it gets clicked. The algorithm designer does not know the post-click rewards nor the arms' actions (i.e., strategically chosen click-rates) in advance, and must learn both values over time. To solve this problem, we design an incentive-aware learning algorithm, UCB-S, which achieves two goals simultaneously: (a) incentivizing desirable arm behavior under uncertainty; (b) minimizing regret by learning unknown parameters. We approximately characterize all Nash equilibria of the arms under UCB-S and show a $\tilde{\mathcal{O}} (\sqrt{KT})$ regret bound uniformly in every equilibrium. We also show that incentive-unaware algorithms generally fail to achieve low regret in the strategic click-bandit. Finally, we support our theoretical results by simulations of strategic arm behavior which confirm the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed incentive design.
Sihyun Yu, Weili Nie, De-An Huang, Boyi Li, Jinwoo Shin, Anima Anandkumar
tl;dr: We propose a memory- and computation-efficient latent video diffusion model that leverages visual knowledge present in pretrained image diffusion models.
Video diffusion models have recently made great progress in generation quality, but are still limited by the high memory and computational requirements. This is because current video diffusion models often attempt to process high-dimensional videos directly. To tackle this issue, we propose content-motion latent diffusion model (CMD), a novel efficient extension of pretrained image diffusion models for video generation. Specifically, we propose an autoencoder that succinctly encodes a video as a combination of a content frame (like an image) and a low-dimensional motion latent representation. The former represents the common content, and the latter represents the underlying motion in the video, respectively. We generate the content frame by fine-tuning a pretrained image diffusion model, and we generate the motion latent representation by training a new lightweight diffusion model. A key innovation here is the design of a compact latent space that can directly utilizes a pretrained image diffusion model, which has not been done in previous latent video diffusion models. This leads to considerably better quality generation and reduced computational costs. For instance, CMD can sample a video 7.7$\times$ faster than prior approaches by generating a video of 512$\times$1024 resolution and length 16 in 3.1 seconds. Moreover, CMD achieves an FVD score of 212.7 on WebVid-10M, 27.3% better than the previous state-of-the-art of 292.4.
Junmo Cho, Jaesik Yoon, Sungjin Ahn
tl;dr: We propose a transformer-based episodic memory model, the Spatially-Aware Episodic Transformer, that incorporates both temporal and spatial dimensions to improve memory utilization and downstream task accuracy.
Episodic memory plays a crucial role in various cognitive processes, such as the ability to mentally recall past events. While cognitive science emphasizes the significance of spatial context in the formation and retrieval of episodic memory, the current primary approach to implementing episodic memory in AI systems is through transformers that store temporally ordered experiences, which overlooks the spatial dimension. As a result, it is unclear how the underlying structure could be extended to incorporate the spatial axis beyond temporal order alone and thereby what benefits can be obtained. To address this, this paper explores the use of Spatially-Aware Transformer models that incorporate spatial information. These models enable the creation of place-centric episodic memory that considers both temporal and spatial dimensions. Adopting this approach, we demonstrate that memory utilization efficiency can be improved, leading to enhanced accuracy in various place-centric downstream tasks. Additionally, we propose the Adaptive Memory Allocator, a memory management method based on reinforcement learning that aims to optimize efficiency of memory utilization. Our experiments demonstrate the advantages of our proposed model in various environments and across multiple downstream tasks, including prediction, generation, reasoning, and reinforcement learning. The source code for our models and experiments will be available at \href{https://github.com/spatially_aware_transformer}{https://github.com/spatially_aware_transformer}.
Sehyun Kwon, Jaeseung Park, Minkyu Kim, Jaewoong Cho, Ernest K. Ryu, Kangwook Lee
tl;dr: We propose a novel image clustering method that perform clustering based on a user-specified criterion.
Classical clustering methods do not provide users with direct control of the clustering results, and the clustering results may not be consistent with the relevant criterion that a user has in mind. In this work, we present a new methodology for performing image clustering based on user-specified criteria in the form of text by leveraging modern Vision-Language Models and Large Language Models. We call our method Image Clustering Conditioned on Text Criteria (IC$|$TC), and it represents a different paradigm of image clustering. IC$|$TC requires a minimal and practical degree of human intervention and grants the user significant control over the clustering results in return. Our experiments show that IC$|$TC can effectively cluster images with various criteria, such as human action, physical location, or the person's mood, significantly outperforming baselines.
Manish Prajapat, Mojmir Mutny, Melanie Zeilinger, Andreas Krause
tl;dr: The paper introduces SubRL, a paradigm for policy optimization under submodular reward functions. It discusses the difficulty of approximating SubRL and proposes SubPO, a simple PG-based algorithm inspired by submodular optimization's greedy strategy
In reinforcement learning (RL), rewards of states are typically considered additive, and following the Markov assumption, they are independent of states visited previously. In many important applications, such as coverage control, experiment design and informative path planning, rewards naturally have diminishing returns, i.e., their value decreases in light of similar states visited previously. To tackle this, we propose Submodular RL (subRL), a paradigm which seeks to optimize more general, non-additive (and history-dependent) rewards modelled via submodular set functions, which capture diminishing returns. Unfortunately, in general, even in tabular settings, we show that the resulting optimization problem is hard to approximate. On the other hand, motivated by the success of greedy algorithms in classical submodular optimization, we propose subPO, a simple policy gradient-based algorithm for subRL that handles non-additive rewards by greedily maximizing marginal gains. Indeed, under some assumptions on the underlying Markov Decision Process (MDP), subPO recovers optimal constant factor approximations of submodular bandits. Moreover, we derive a natural policy gradient approach for locally optimizing subRL instances even in large state- and action- spaces. We showcase the versatility of our approach by applying subPO to several applications, such as biodiversity monitoring, Bayesian experiment design, informative path planning, and coverage maximization. Our results demonstrate sample efficiency, as well as scalability to high-dimensional state-action spaces.
Jiawei Yang, Boris Ivanovic, Or Litany, Xinshuo Weng, Seung Wook Kim, Boyi Li, Tong Che, Danfei Xu, Sanja Fidler, Marco Pavone, Yue Wang
We present EmerNeRF, a simple yet powerful approach for learning spatial-temporal representations of dynamic driving scenes. Grounded in neural fields, EmerNeRF simultaneously captures scene geometry, appearance, motion, and semantics via self-bootstrapping. EmerNeRF hinges upon two core components: First, it stratifies scenes into static and dynamic fields. This decomposition emerges purely from self-supervision, enabling our model to learn from general, in-the-wild data sources. Second, EmerNeRF parameterizes an induced flow field from the dynamic field and uses this flow field to further aggregate multi-frame features, amplifying the rendering precision of dynamic objects. Coupling these three fields (static, dynamic, and flow) enables EmerNeRF to represent highly-dynamic scenes self-sufficiently, without relying on ground truth object annotations or pre-trained models for dynamic object segmentation or optical flow estimation. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in sensor simulation, significantly outperforming previous methods when reconstructing static (+2.39 PSNR) and dynamic (+3.25 PSNR) scenes. In addition, to bolster EmerNeRF's semantic generalization, we lift 2D visual foundation model features into 4D space-time and address a general positional bias in modern Transformers, significantly boosting 3D perception performance (e.g., 78.5% relative improvement in occupancy prediction accuracy). Finally, we construct a diverse and challenging 120-sequence dataset to benchmark neural fields under extreme and highly-dynamic settings. Visualizations, code, and data will be anonymously available at https://anonymous.4open.science/r/EmerNeRF_review-003B/
Hanwen Jiang, Zhenyu Jiang, Yue Zhao, Qixing Huang
Are camera poses necessary for multi-view 3D modeling? Existing approaches predominantly assume access to accurate camera poses. While this assumption might hold for dense views, accurately estimating camera poses for sparse views is often elusive. Our analysis reveals that noisy estimated poses lead to degraded performance for existing sparse-view 3D modeling methods. To address this issue, we present LEAP, a novel pose-free approach, therefore challenging the prevailing notion that camera poses are indispensable. LEAP discards pose-based operations and learns geometric knowledge from data. LEAP is equipped with a neural volume, which is shared across scenes and is parameterized to encode geometry and texture priors. For each incoming scene, we update the neural volume by aggregating 2D image features in a feature-similarity-driven manner. The updated neural volume is decoded into the radiance field, enabling novel view synthesis from any viewpoint. On both object-centric and scene-level datasets, we show that LEAP significantly outperforms prior methods when they employ predicted poses from state-of-the-art pose estimators. Notably, LEAP performs on par with prior approaches that use ground-truth poses while running $400\times$ faster than PixelNeRF. We show LEAP generalizes to novel object categories and scenes, and learns knowledge closely resembles epipolar geometry.
Katie Kang, Amrith Setlur, Claire Tomlin, Sergey Levine
Conventional wisdom suggests that neural network predictions tend to be unpredictable and overconfident when faced with out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs. Our work reassesses this assumption for neural networks with high-dimensional inputs. Rather than extrapolating in arbitrary ways, we observe that neural network predictions often tend towards a constant value as input data becomes increasingly OOD. Moreover, we find that this value often closely approximates the optimal constant solution (OCS), i.e., the prediction that minimizes the average loss over the training data without observing the input. We present results showing this phenomenon across 8 datasets with different distributional shifts (including CIFAR10-C and ImageNet-R, S), different loss functions (cross entropy, MSE, and Gaussian NLL), and different architectures (CNNs and transformers). Furthermore, we present an explanation for this behavior, which we first validate empirically and then study theoretically in a simplified setting involving deep homogeneous networks with ReLU activations. Finally, we show how one can leverage our insights in practice to enable risk-sensitive decision-making in the presence of OOD inputs.
Joey Hejna, Rafael Rafailov, Harshit Sikchi, Chelsea Finn, Scott Niekum, W. Bradley Knox, Dorsa Sadigh
tl;dr: We propose Constrastive Preference Learning, a new supervised algorithm for learning optimal policies from regret-based preferences in general MDPs.
Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) has emerged as a popular paradigm for aligning models with human intent. Typically RLHF algorithms operate in two phases: first, use human preferences to learn a reward function and second, align the model by optimizing the learned reward via reinforcement learning (RL). This paradigm assumes that human preferences are distributed according to reward, but recent work suggests that they instead follow the regret under the user's optimal policy. Thus, learning a reward function from feedback is not only based on a flawed assumption of human preference, but also leads to unwieldy optimization challenges that stem from policy gradients or bootstrapping in the RL phase. Because of these optimization challenges, contemporary RLHF methods restrict themselves to contextual bandit settings (e.g., as in large language models) or limit observation dimensionality (e.g., state-based robotics). We overcome these limitations by introducing a new family of algorithms for optimizing behavior from human feedback using the regret model of human preferences. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we derive Contrastive Preference Learning (CPL), an algorithm for learning optimal policies from preferences without learning reward functions, circumventing the need for RL. CPL is fully off-policy, uses only a simple contrastive objective, and can be applied to arbitrary MDPs. In contrast to prior work, this enables CPL to elegantly scale to high-dimensional and sequential RLHF problems.
Jian-Feng CAI, Yu Long, Ruixue WEN, Jiaxi Ying
We study the sparse phase retrieval problem, which aims to recover a sparse signal from a limited number of phaseless measurements. Existing algorithms for sparse phase retrieval primarily rely on first-order methods with linear convergence rate. In this paper, we propose an efficient second-order algorithm based on Newton projection, which maintains the same per-iteration computational complexity as popular first-order methods. The proposed algorithm is theoretically guaranteed to converge to the ground truth (up to a global sign) at a quadratic convergence rate after at most $\mathcal{O}\big(\log (\Vert\boldsymbol{x}^{\natural} \Vert /x_{\min}^{\natural})\big)$ iterations, provided a sample complexity of $\mathcal{O}(s^2\log n)$, where $\boldsymbol{x}^{\natural} \in \mathbb{R}^n$ represents an $s$-sparse ground truth signal. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of achieving a significantly faster convergence rate.
Yihang Chen, Fanghui Liu, Yiping Lu, Grigorios Chrysos, Volkan Cevher
Despite the widespread empirical success of ResNet, the generalization ability of deep ResNet is rarely explored beyond the lazy-training regime. In this work, we investigate ResNet in the limit of infinitely deep and wide neural networks, of which the gradient flow is described by a partial differential equation in the large-neural network limit, i.e., the \emph{mean-field} regime. To derive the generalization bounds under this setting, our analysis necessitates a shift from the conventional time-invariant Gram matrix employed in the lazy training regime to a time-variant, distribution-dependent version tailored to the mean-field regime. To this end, we provide a lower bound on the minimum eigenvalue of the Gram matrix under the mean-field regime. Besides, the traceability of the dynamic of Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is also required under the mean-field regime. We therefore establish the linear convergence of the empirical error and estimate the upper bound of the KL divergence over parameters distribution. The above two results are employed to build the uniform convergence for generalization bound via Rademacher complexity. Our results offer new insights into the generalization ability of deep ResNet beyond the lazy training regime and contribute to advancing the understanding of the fundamental properties of deep neural networks.
Ling Pan, Moksh Jain, Kanika Madan, Yoshua Bengio
tl;dr: We propose a fundamental paradigm for leveraging the potential of pre-training in GFlowNets for efficient adaptation to downstream tasks.
Generative Flow Networks (GFlowNets) are amortized samplers that learn stochastic policies to sequentially generate compositional objects from a given unnormalized reward distribution. They can generate diverse sets of high-reward objects, which is an important consideration in scientific discovery tasks. However, as they are typically trained from a given extrinsic reward function, it remains an important open challenge about how to leverage the power of pre-training and train GFlowNets in an unsupervised fashion for efficient adaptation to downstream tasks. Inspired by recent successes of unsupervised pre-training in various domains, we introduce a novel approach for reward-free pre-training of GFlowNets. By framing the training as a self-supervised problem, we propose an outcome-conditioned GFlowNet (OC-GFN) that learns to explore the candidate space. Specifically, OC-GFN learns to reach any targeted outcomes, akin to goal-conditioned policies in reinforcement learning. We show that the pre-trained OC-GFN model can allow for a direct extraction of a policy capable of sampling from any new reward functions in downstream tasks. Nonetheless, adapting OC-GFN on a downstream task-specific reward involves an intractable marginalization over possible outcomes. We propose a novel way to approximate this marginalization by learning an amortized predictor enabling efficient fine-tuning. Extensive experimental results validate the efficacy of our approach, demonstrating the effectiveness of pre-training the OC-GFN, and its ability to swiftly adapt to downstream tasks and discover modes more efficiently. This work may serve as a foundation for further exploration of pre-training strategies in the context of GFlowNets.
Omer Nahum, Gali Noti, David C. Parkes, Nir Rosenfeld
tl;dr: Online marketplaces suffer from congestion---when many users are interested in the same indivisible goods; we propose that platforms decongest by appropriately *representing* items, and propose a differentiable learning framework for doing so.
Congestion is a common failure mode of markets, where consumers compete inefficiently on the same subset of goods (e.g., chasing the same small set of properties on a vacation rental platform). The typical economic story is that prices decongest by balancing supply and demand. But in modern online marketplaces, prices are typically set in a decentralized way by sellers, and the information about items is inevitably partial. The power of a platform is limited to controlling *representations*---the subset of information about items presented by default to users. This motivates the present study of *decongestion by representation*, where a platform seeks to learn representations that reduce congestion and thus improve social welfare. The technical challenge is twofold: relying only on revealed preferences from the choices of consumers, rather than true preferences; and the combinatorial problem associated with representations that determine the features to reveal in the default view. We tackle both challenges by proposing a *differentiable proxy of welfare* that can be trained end-to-end on consumer choice data. We develop sufficient conditions for when decongestion promotes welfare, and present the results of extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data that demonstrate the utility of our approach.
Yoonyoung Cho, Junhyek Han, Yoontae Cho, Beomjoon Kim
tl;dr: contact-based representation learning for nonprehensile robotic manipulation on objects with general geometry, with zero-shot real-world transfer.
Nonprehensile manipulation is essential for manipulating objects that are too thin, large, or otherwise ungraspable in the wild. To sidestep the difficulty of contact modeling in conventional modeling-based approaches, reinforcement learning (RL) has recently emerged as a promising alternative. However, previous RL approaches either lack the ability to generalize over diverse object shapes, or use simple action primitives that limit the diversity of robot motions. Furthermore, using RL over diverse object geometry is challenging due to the high cost of training a policy that takes in high-dimensional sensory inputs. We propose a novel contact-based object representation and pretraining pipeline to tackle this. To enable massively parallel training, we leverage a lightweight patch-based transformer architecture for our encoder that processes point clouds, thus scaling our training across thousands of environments. Compared to learning from scratch, or other shape representation baselines, our representation facilitates both time- and data-efficient learning. We validate the efficacy of our overall system by zero-shot transferring the trained policy to novel real-world objects. We highly recommend the video attached in the supplementary material. Code and videos are available at \url{https://sites.google.com/view/contact-non-prehensile}.
Victor Livernoche, Vineet Jain, Yashar Hezaveh, Siamak Ravanbakhsh
tl;dr: Identify anomalies in a dataset by estimating the diffusion time, anomalies have higher diffusion times
Known for their impressive performance in generative modeling, diffusion models are attractive candidates for density-based anomaly detection. This paper investigates different variations of diffusion modeling for unsupervised and semi-supervised anomaly detection. In particular, we find that Denoising Diffusion Probability Models (DDPM) are performant on anomaly detection benchmarks yet computationally expensive. By simplifying DDPM in application to anomaly detection, we are naturally led to an alternative approach called Diffusion Time Estimation (DTE). DTE estimates the distribution over diffusion time for a given input and uses the mode or mean of this distribution as the anomaly score. We derive an analytical form for this density and leverage a deep neural network to improve inference efficiency. Through empirical evaluations on the ADBench benchmark, we demonstrate that all diffusion-based anomaly detection methods perform competitively for both semi-supervised and unsupervised settings. Notably, DTE achieves orders of magnitude faster inference time than DDPM, while outperforming it on this benchmark. These results establish diffusion-based anomaly detection as a scalable alternative to traditional methods and recent deep-learning techniques for standard unsupervised and semi-supervised anomaly detection settings.
Jiayang Liu, Yiming Bu, Daniel Tso, Qinru Qiu
High accuracy, low latency and high energy efficiency represent a set of contradictory goals when searching for system solutions for image classification and detection. While high-quality images naturally result in more precise detection and classification, they also result in a heavier computational workload for imaging and processing, reduce camera refresh rates, and increase the volume of data communication between the camera and processor. Taking inspiration from the foveal-peripheral sampling mechanism, saccade mechanism observed in the human visual system and the filling-in phenomena of brain, we have developed an active scene reconstruction architecture based on multiple foveal views. This model stitches together information from foveal and peripheral vision, which are sampled from multiple glances. Assisted by a reinforcement learning-based saccade mechanism, our model reduces the required input pixels by over 90\% per frame while maintaining the same level of performance in image recognition as with the original images. We evaluated the effectiveness of our model using the GTSRB dataset and the ImageNet dataset. Using an equal number of input pixels, our study demonstrates a 5\% higher image recognition accuracy compared to state-of-the-art foveal-peripheral vision systems. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our foveal sampling/saccadic scene reconstruction model exhibits significantly lower complexity and higher data efficiency during the training phase compared to existing approaches.
Yin Fang, Xiaozhuan Liang, Ningyu Zhang, Kangwei Liu, Rui Huang, Zhuo Chen, Xiaohui Fan, Huajun Chen
tl;dr: A large-scale biomolecular instruction dataset for large language models.
Large Language Models (LLMs), with their remarkable task-handling capabilities and innovative outputs, have catalyzed significant advancements across a spectrum of fields. However, their proficiency within specialized domains such as biomolecular studies remains limited. To address this challenge, we introduce Mol-Instructions, a comprehensive instruction dataset designed for the biomolecular domain. Mol-Instructions encompasses three key components: molecule-oriented instructions, protein-oriented instructions, and biomolecular text instructions. Each component aims to improve the understanding and prediction capabilities of LLMs concerning biomolecular features and behaviors. Through extensive instruction tuning experiments on LLMs, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Mol-Instructions in enhancing large models' performance in the intricate realm of biomolecular studies, thus fostering progress in the biomolecular research community. Mol-Instructions is publicly available for ongoing research and will undergo regular updates to enhance its applicability (https://github.com/zjunlp/Mol-Instructions).
Yohann Benchetrit, Hubert Banville, Jean-Remi King
tl;dr: Decoding perceived images from brain activity (MEG) data facilitates the study of visual perception dynamics.
In the past five years, the use of generative and foundational AI systems has greatly improved the decoding of brain activity. Visual perception, in particular, can now be decoded from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with remarkable fidelity. This neuroimaging technique, however, suffers from a limited temporal resolution ($\approx$0.5\,Hz) and thus fundamentally constrains its real-time usage. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on magnetoencephalography (MEG), a neuroimaging device capable of measuring brain activity with high temporal resolution ($\approx$5,000 Hz). For this, we develop an MEG decoding model trained with both contrastive and regression objectives and consisting of three modules: i) pretrained embeddings obtained from the image, ii) an MEG module trained end-to-end and iii) a pretrained image generator. Our results are threefold: Firstly, our MEG decoder shows a 7X improvement of image-retrieval over classic linear decoders. Second, late brain responses to images are best decoded with DINOv2, a recent foundational image model. Third, image retrievals and generations both suggest that high-level visual features can be decoded from MEG signals, although the same approach applied to 7T fMRI also recovers better low-level features. Overall, these results, while preliminary, provide an important step towards the decoding - in real-time - of the visual processes continuously unfolding within the human brain.
Zhiliang Peng, Wenhui Wang, Li Dong, Yaru Hao, Shaohan Huang, Shuming Ma, Qixiang Ye, Furu Wei
We introduce Kosmos-2, a Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM), enabling new capabilities of perceiving object descriptions (e.g., bounding boxes) and grounding text to the visual world. Specifically, we represent text spans (i.e., referring expressions and noun phrases) as links in Markdown, i.e., [text span](bounding boxes), where object descriptions are sequences of location tokens. To train the model, we construct a large-scale dataset about grounded image-text pairs (GrIT) together with multimodal corpora. In addition to the existing capabilities of MLLMs (e.g., perceiving general modalities, following instructions, and performing in-context learning), Kosmos-2 integrates the grounding capability to downstream applications, while maintaining the conventional capabilities of MLLMs (e.g., perceiving general modalities, following instructions, and performing in-context learning). Kosmos-2 is evaluated on a wide range of tasks, including (i) multimodal grounding, such as referring expression comprehension and phrase grounding, (ii) multimodal referring, such as referring expression generation, (iii) perception-language tasks, and (iv) language understanding and generation. This study sheds a light on the big convergence of language, multimodal perception, and world modeling, which is a key step toward artificial general intelligence. Code can be found in [https://aka.ms/kosmos-2](https://aka.ms/kosmos-2).
Zhepei Wei, Chuanhao Li, Tianze Ren, Haifeng Xu, Hongning Wang
tl;dr: We introduce the first truthful incentive mechanism for federated bandits, where clients are incentivized to truthfully report costs for their best interests. The proposed Truth-FedBan guarantees near-optimal regret, communication and social costs.
To enhance the efficiency and practicality of federated bandit learning, recent advances have introduced incentives to motivate communication among clients, where a client participates only when the incentive offered by the server outweighs its participation cost. However, existing incentive mechanisms naively assume the clients are truthful: they all report their true cost and thus the higher cost one participating client claims, the more the server has to pay. Therefore, such mechanisms are vulnerable to strategic clients aiming to optimize their own utility by misreporting. To address this issue, we propose an incentive compatible (i.e., truthful) communication protocol, named Truth-FedBan, where the incentive for each participant is independent of its self-reported cost, and reporting the true cost is the only way to achieve the best utility. More importantly, Truth-FedBan still guarantees the sub-linear regret and communication cost without any overhead. In other words, the core conceptual contribution of this paper is, for the first time, demonstrating the possibility of simultaneously achieving incentive compatibility and nearly optimal regret in federated bandit learning. Extensive numerical studies further validate the effectiveness of our proposed solution.
Michal Geyer, Omer Bar-Tal, Shai Bagon, Tali Dekel
The generative AI revolution has recently expanded to videos. Nevertheless, current state-of-the-art video models are still lagging behind image models in terms of visual quality and user control over the generated content. In this work, we present a framework that harnesses the power of a text-to-image diffusion model for the task of text-driven video editing. Specifically, given a source video and a target text-prompt, our method generates a high-quality video that adheres to the target text, while preserving the spatial layout and motion of the input video. Our method is based on a key observation that consistency in the edited video can be obtained by enforcing consistency in the diffusion feature space. We achieve this by explicitly propagating diffusion features based on inter-frame correspondences, readily available in the model. Thus, our framework does not require any training or fine-tuning, and can work in conjunction with any off-the-shelf text-to-image editing method. We demonstrate state-of-the-art editing results on a variety of real-world videos.
Gabriel Grand, Lionel Wong, Matthew Bowers, Theo X. Olausson, Muxin Liu, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Jacob Andreas
tl;dr: We introduce a neurosymbolic framework for program synthesis that integrates language models with program compression to learn interpretable libraries of reusable function abstractions.
While large language models (LLMs) now excel at code generation, a key aspect of software development is the art of refactoring: consolidating code into libraries of reusable and readable programs. In this paper, we introduce LILO, a neurosymbolic framework that iteratively synthesizes, compresses, and documents code to build libraries tailored to particular problem domains. Computationally, library learning presents a challenging optimization problem that requires formal reasoning about program structure at scale. LILO combines LLM-guided program synthesis with recent algorithmic advances in automated refactoring from Stitch: a symbolic compression system that efficiently identifies optimal lambda abstractions across large code corpora. To make these abstractions interpretable, we introduce an auto-documentation (AutoDoc) procedure that infers natural language names and docstrings based on contextual examples of usage. In addition to improving human readability, we find that AutoDoc boosts performance by helping LILO's synthesizer to interpret and deploy learned abstractions. We evaluate LILO on three inductive program synthesis benchmarks for string editing, scene reasoning, and graphics composition. Compared to existing neural and symbolic methods—including the state-of-the-art library learning algorithm DreamCoder—LILO solves more complex tasks and learns richer libraries that are grounded in linguistic knowledge. In sum, LILO provides a general design pattern for human-interpretable systems that build up shared libraries of program abstractions to solve complex software problems.
Yite Wang, Jiahao Su, Hanlin Lu, Cong Xie, Tianyi Liu, Jianbo Yuan, Haibin Lin, Ruoyu Sun, Hongxia Yang
tl;dr: We propose LEMON, a method that initializes large model with pretrained small model to save computational resources.
Scaling of deep neural networks, especially Transformers, is pivotal for their surging performance and has further led to the emergence of sophisticated reasoning capabilities in foundation models. Such scaling generally requires training large models from scratch with random initialization, failing to leverage the knowledge acquired by their smaller counterparts, which are already resource-intensive to obtain. To tackle this inefficiency, we present $\textbf{L}$ossl$\textbf{E}$ss $\textbf{MO}$del Expansio$\textbf{N}$ (LEMON), a recipe to initialize scaled models using the weights of their smaller but pre-trained counterparts. This is followed by model training with an optimized learning rate scheduler tailored explicitly for the scaled models, substantially reducing the training time compared to training from scratch. Notably, LEMON is versatile, ensuring compatibility with various network structures, including models like Vision Transformers and BERT. Our empirical results demonstrate that LEMON reduces computational costs by 56.7\% for Vision Transformers and 33.2\% for BERT when compared to training from scratch.
Saeed Saremi, Ji Won Park, Francis Bach
We introduce a theoretical framework for sampling from unnormalized densities based on a smoothing scheme that uses an isotropic Gaussian kernel with a single fixed noise scale. We prove one can decompose sampling from a density (minimal assumptions made on the density) into a sequence of sampling from log-concave conditional densities via accumulation of noisy measurements with equal noise levels. Our construction is unique in that it keeps track of a history of samples, making it non-Markovian as a whole, but it is lightweight algorithmically as the history only shows up in the form of a running empirical mean of samples. Our sampling algorithm generalizes walk-jump sampling (Saremi & Hyvärinen, 2019). The "walk" phase becomes a (non-Markovian) chain of (log-concave) Markov chains. The "jump" from the accumulated measurements is obtained by empirical Bayes. We study our sampling algorithm quantitatively using the 2-Wasserstein metric and compare it with various Langevin MCMC algorithms. We also report a remarkable capacity of our algorithm to "tunnel" between modes of a distribution.
Yin Fang, Ningyu Zhang, Zhuo Chen, Lingbing Guo, Xiaohui Fan, Huajun Chen
tl;dr: A novel pre-trained molecular language model specifically tailored for molecular generation using SELFIES.
The generation of molecules with desired properties has become increasingly popular, revolutionizing the way scientists design molecular structures and providing valuable support for chemical and drug design. However, despite the potential of language models in molecule generation, they face challenges such as generating syntactically or chemically flawed molecules, having narrow domain focus, and struggling to create diverse and feasible molecules due to limited annotated data or external molecular databases. To tackle these challenges, we introduce MolGen, a pre-trained molecular language model tailored specifically for molecule generation. Through the reconstruction of over 100 million molecular SELFIES, MolGen internalizes structural and grammatical insights. This is further enhanced by domain-agnostic molecular prefix tuning, fostering robust knowledge transfer across diverse domains. Importantly, our chemical feedback paradigm steers the model away from "molecular hallucinations", ensuring alignment between the model's estimated probabilities and real-world chemical preferences. Extensive experiments on well-known benchmarks underscore MolGen's optimization capabilities in properties such as penalized logP, QED, and molecular docking. Additional analyses confirm its proficiency in accurately capturing molecule distributions, discerning intricate structural patterns, and efficiently exploring the chemical space (https://github.com/zjunlp/MolGen).
Han Zhang, Xiaofan Gui, Shun Zheng, Ziheng Lu, Yuqi Li, Jiang Bian
tl;dr: BatteryML is an open-source platform that simplifies machine learning applications for battery life prediction, addressing challenges faced by researchers and fostering collaboration across disciplines.
Battery life prediction has been a critical subject for energy storage field, and the incorporation of machine learning in recent years has substantially accelerated its advancements. However, Battery life prediction presents a high technical barrier as a multidisciplinary issue, posing challenges for researchers in both battery and machine learning fields. Machine learning researchers often lack essential knowledge about batteries, and understanding various battery types and related information requires significant time and effort. For battery researchers, unique models are implemented on specific datasets, and the complexity of these models obstructs their adaptation to individual battery data. To address these challenges, we introduce BatteryML, a one-stop open-source platform that streamlines the process, covering data preprocessing, feature extraction, and the application of both classical and cutting-edge models. This efficient approach enables practical applications for researchers. Currently, unified standards for battery life prediction are lacking, encompassing data format and evaluation criteria for predictions. Through BatteryML, we aim to establish these standards, allowing researchers from diverse fields to contribute to battery research and cultivating a collaborative platform for experts across both disciplines.
Dante Everaert, Christopher Potts
tl;dr: We introduce a domain- and task-agnostic, scalable and efficient KL divergence-based method for training dataset selection and show it can achieve outstanding results with very small train sets on a variety of text tasks and an image task.
It is often advantageous to train models on a subset of the available train examples, because the examples are of variable quality or because one would like to train with fewer examples, without sacrificing performance. We present Gradient Information Optimization (GIO), a scalable, task-agnostic approach to this data selection problem that requires only a small set of (unlabeled) examples representing a target distribution. GIO begins from a natural, information-theoretic objective that is intractable in practice. Our contribution is in showing that it can be made highly scalable through a simple relaxation of the objective and a highly efficient implementation. In experiments with machine translation, spelling correction, and image recognition, we show that GIO delivers outstanding results with very small train sets. These findings are robust to different representation models and hyperparameters for GIO itself. GIO is task- and domain-agnostic and can be applied out-of-the-box to new datasets and domains.
Marina Zhang, Owen Skipper Vallis, Aysegul Bumin, Tanay Vakharia, Elie Bursztein
tl;dr: RETSim is a lightweight, multilingual text embedding designed for robust near-duplicate text retrieval, clustering and dataset deduplication.
This paper introduces RETSim (Resilient and Efficient Text Similarity), a lightweight, multilingual deep learning model trained to produce robust metric embeddings for near-duplicate text retrieval, clustering, and dataset deduplication tasks. We demonstrate that RETSim is significantly more robust and accurate than MinHash and neural text embeddings, achieving new state-of-the-art performance on dataset deduplication, adversarial text retrieval benchmarks, and spam clustering tasks. Additionally, we introduce the W4NT3D benchmark (Wiki-40B 4dversarial Near-T3xt Dataset), enabling the evaluation of models on typo-laden near-duplicate text retrieval in a multilingual setting. RETSim and the W4NT3D benchmark are released under the MIT License at https://github.com/google/unisim.
Jiahuan Yan, Bo Zheng, Hongxia Xu, Yiheng Zhu, Danny Chen, Jimeng Sun, Jian Wu, Jintai Chen
tl;dr: A language model adaption approach for precise tabular data classification and regression.
The transferability of deep neural networks (DNNs) has made significant progress in image and language processing. However, due to the heterogeneity among tables, such DNN bonus is still far from being well exploited on tabular data prediction (e.g., regression or classification tasks). Condensing knowledge from diverse domains, language models (LMs) possess the capability to comprehend feature names from various tables, potentially serving as versatile learners in transferring knowledge across distinct tables and diverse prediction tasks, but their discrete text representation space is inherently incompatible with numerical feature values in tables. In this paper, we present TP-BERTa, a specifically pre-trained LM for tabular data prediction. Concretely, a novel relative magnitude tokenization converts scalar numerical feature values to finely discrete, high-dimensional tokens, and an intra-feature attention approach integrates feature values with the corresponding feature names. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that our pre-trained TP-BERTa leads the performance among tabular DNNs and is competitive with Gradient Boosted Decision Tree models in typical tabular data regime.
Hang Yin, Zihao Wang, Yangqiu Song
Reasoning on knowledge graphs is a challenging task because it utilizes observed information to predict the missing one. Particularly, answering complex queries based on first-order logic is one of the crucial tasks to verify learning to reason abilities for generalization and composition. Recently, the prevailing method is query embedding which learns the embedding of a set of entities and treats logic operations as set operations and has shown great empirical success. Though there has been much research following the same formulation, many of its claims lack a formal and systematic inspection. In this paper, we rethink this formulation and justify many of the previous claims by characterizing the scope of queries investigated previously and precisely identifying the gap between its formulation and its goal, as well as providing complexity analysis for the currently investigated queries. Moreover, we develop a new dataset containing ten new types of queries with features that have never been considered and therefore can provide a thorough investigation of complex queries. Finally, we propose a new neural-symbolic method, Fuzzy Inference with Truth value (FIT), where we equip the neural link predictors with fuzzy logic theory to support end-to-end learning using complex queries with provable reasoning capability. Empirical results show that our method outperforms previous methods significantly in the new dataset and also surpasses previous methods in the existing dataset at the same time.
Szu-Wei Fu, Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Yu Tsao, Yu-Chiang Frank Wang
tl;dr: Our proposed speech quality estimation and enhancement models only need clean speeches for model training without any label requirements. Experimental results show that the performance are competitive with the supervised baselines.
Speech quality estimation has recently undergone a paradigm shift from human-hearing expert designs to machine-learning models. However, current models rely mainly on supervised learning, which is time-consuming and expensive for label collection. To solve this problem, we propose VQScore, a self-supervised metric for evaluating speech based on the quantization error of a vector-quantized-variational autoencoder (VQ-VAE). The training of VQ-VAE relies on clean speech; hence, large quantization errors can be expected when the speech is distorted. To further improve correlation with real quality scores, domain knowledge of speech processing is incorporated into the model design. We found that the vector quantization mechanism could also be used for self-supervised speech enhancement (SE) model training. To improve the robustness of the encoder for SE, a novel self-distillation mechanism combined with adversarial training is introduced. In summary, the proposed speech quality estimation method and enhancement models require only clean speech for training without any label requirements. Experimental results show that the proposed VQScore and enhancement model are competitive with supervised baselines. The code will be released after publication.
Jiseok Chae, Kyuwon Kim, Donghwan Kim
tl;dr: We characterize to which points the extragradient method with timescale separation converges, and show that those points are related to local minimax points.
Minimax problems are notoriously challenging to optimize. However, we present that two-timescale extragradient can be a viable solution. By utilizing dynamical systems theory, we show that it converges to points that satisfy the second-order necessary condition of local minimax points, under mild conditions. This work provably improves upon all previous results as we eliminate a crucial assumption that the Hessian, with respect to the maximization variable, is nondegenerate.
Jie Xiao, Ruili Feng, Zhiheng Liu, Zhantao Yang, Han Zhang, Yurui Zhu, Xueyang Fu, Kai Zhu, Yu Liu, Zheng-Jun Zha
tl;dr: This paper proposes an unsupervised and training-free blind image-restoration method that uses deep diffusion prior.
Image restoration poses a garners substantial interest due to the exponential surge in demands for recovering high-quality images from diverse mobile camera devices, adverse lighting conditions, suboptimal shooting environments, and frequent image compression for efficient transmission purposes. Yet this problem gathers significant challenges as people are blind to the type of restoration the images suffer, which, is usually the case in real-day scenarios and is most urgent to solve for this field. Current research, however, heavily relies on prior knowledge of the restoration type, either explicitly through rules or implicitly through the availability of degraded-clean image pairs to define the restoration process, and consumes considerable effort to collect image pairs of vast degradation types. This paper introduces DreamClean, a training-free method that needs no degradation prior knowledge but yields high-fidelity and generality towards various types of image degradation. DreamClean embeds the degraded image back to the latent of pre-trained diffusion models and re-sample it through a carefully designed diffusion process that mimics those generating clean images. Thanks to the rich image prior in diffusion models and our novel Variance Preservation Sampling (VPS) technique, DreamClean manages to handle various different degradation types at one time and reaches far more satisfied final quality than previous competitors. DreamClean relies on elegant theoretical supports to assure its convergence to clean image when VPS has appropriate parameters, and also enjoys superior experimental performance over various challenging tasks that could be overwhelming for previous methods when degradation prior is unavailable.
Abudukelimu Wuerkaixi, Sen Cui, Jingfeng Zhang, Kunda Yan, Bo Han, Gang Niu, Lei Fang, Changshui Zhang, Masashi Sugiyama
tl;dr: We propse the concept of accurate forgetting in federated continual learning to selectively utilize previous knowledge.
Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning interest in federated learning (FL). However, the contexts in which clients engage in sequential learning remain under- explored. Bridging FL and continual learning (CL) gives rise to a challenging practical problem: federated continual learning (FCL). Existing research in FCL primarily focuses on mitigating the catastrophic forgetting issue of continual learning while collaborating with other clients. We argue that forgetting phenomena are not invariably detrimental. In this paper, we consider a more practical and challenging FCL setting characterized by potentially unrelated or even antagonistic data/tasks across different clients. In the FL scenario, statistical heterogeneity and data noise among clients may exhibit spurious correlations which result in biased feature learning. While existing CL strategies focus on the complete utilization of previous knowledge, we found that forgetting biased information was beneficial in our study. Therefore, we propose a new concept accurate forgetting (AF) and develop a novel generative-replay method AF-FCL that selectively utilizes previous knowledge in federated networks. We employ a probabilistic framework based on a normalizing flow model to quantify the credibility of previous knowledge. Comprehensive experiments affirm the superiority of our method over baselines.
Huanran Chen, Yichi Zhang, Yinpeng Dong, Xiao Yang, Hang Su, Jun Zhu
tl;dr: We rethink model ensemble in transfer-based adversarial attacks and propose a Common Weakness Attack to generate more transferable adversarial examples.
It is widely recognized that deep learning models lack robustness to adversarial examples. An intriguing property of adversarial examples is that they can transfer across different models, which enables black-box attacks without any knowledge of the victim model. An effective strategy to improve the transferability is attacking an ensemble of models. However, previous works simply average the outputs of different models, lacking an in-depth analysis on how and why model ensemble methods can strongly improve the transferability. In this paper, we rethink the ensemble in adversarial attacks and define the common weakness of model ensemble with two properties: 1) the flatness of loss landscape; and 2) the closeness to the local optimum of each model. We empirically and theoretically show that both properties are strongly correlated with the transferability and propose a Common Weakness Attack (CWA) to generate more transferable adversarial examples by promoting these two properties. Experimental results on both image classification and object detection tasks validate the effectiveness of our approach to improving the adversarial transferability, especially when attacking adversarially trained models. We also successfully apply our method to attack a black-box large vision-language model -- Google's Bard, showing the practical effectiveness. Code is available at \url{https://github.com/huanranchen/AdversarialAttacks}.
Fangyuan Xu, Weijia Shi, Eunsol Choi
tl;dr: We train compressor models to shorten retrieved documents passed to language models.
Retrieval-augmented language models improve language models (LMs) by retrieving documents and prepending them in-context. However, these documents, often spanning hundreds of words, make inference substantially less efficient. We propose compressing the retrieved documents into textual summaries prior to in-context integration. This not only reduces the computational costs but also relieve the burden of LMs to identify relevant information in long retrieved documents. We present two compressors -- an extractive compressor which selects useful sentences from retrieved documents and an abstractive compressor which generates summary by synthesizing information from multiple documents. Both are trained to achieve performance gain in LMs when we prepend the generated summary from the compressor to LMs' input, while minimizing the summary length. When retrieved documents are irrelevant to the input or offer no additional information to LM, our compressors output an empty string, enabling selective augmentation. We evaluate our approach on the language modeling task and open domain question answering task. We achieve a compression rate of as low as 6% with minimal loss in performance for both tasks, significantly outperforming the off-the-shelf summarization models. We show that our compressors trained for one LM can transfer to other LMs on the language modeling task and provide a summary largely faithful to the retrieved documents.
Grzegorz Rypeść, Sebastian Cygert, Valeriya Khan, Tomasz Trzcinski, Bartosz Michał Zieliński, Bartłomiej Twardowski
tl;dr: Class Incremental Learning, no exemplars, training from scratch. We design an ensemble of experts method, where in each task only one expert is finetuned, but all contribute during inference. We show it is a promising approach for CIL.
Class-incremental learning is becoming more popular as it helps models widen their applicability while not forgetting what they already know. A trend in this area is to use a mixture-of-expert technique, where different models work together to solve the task. However, the experts are usually trained all at once using whole task data, which makes them all prone to forgetting and increasing computational burden. To address this limitation, we introduce a novel approach named SEED. SEED selects only one, the most optimal expert for a considered task, and uses data from this task to fine-tune only this expert. For this purpose, each expert represents each class with a Gaussian distribution, and the optimal expert is selected based on the similarity of those distributions. Consequently, SEED increases diversity and heterogeneity within the experts while maintaining the high stability of this ensemble method. The extensive experiments demonstrate that SEED achieves state-of-the-art performance in exemplar-free settings across various scenarios, showing the potential of expert diversification through data in continual learning.
Masanori Koyama, Kenji Fukumizu, Kohei Hayashi, Takeru Miyato